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uAaaJ) J. <^(ZoA^-e^ 









Vol. XXV. 








\J y j-X. -J 



ipubUcatfon Committee 


Copyrighted 19x7 


The Pennsylvania-German Society 










Contents ^ 

Officers of the Society ^ 

Minutes of the Meeting at Lancaster 5 

Report of Secretary, Prof. George T. Ettinger .... 6 
Report of Treasurer, J. E. Burnett Buckenham 7 7 \ _ ^ 

Death of Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman 10 

President's Address ic 

Report of Committee on Bibliography 26 

Election of Officers 28 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Members .... 33 

Ipennsplbania — The German Influence in its Settle- 
ment AND Development. 

Part XXVII. The Diarium of Magister Johannes 

The Braddock Expedition. 

■•Zi"i^-.. i 


FOR 1914-1915. 

President : 
Hon. William U. Hensel, Litt.D., LL.D. 

(Died February 27, 191 5.) 

Hon. Harman Yerkes. 

Vice-Presidents : 
William F. Muhlenberg, M.D., LL.D. 

(Died August 25, 1915.) 

Albert K. Hostetter. 

Secretary : 
Prof. George T. Ettinger, Ph.D., 

Allentown, Pa. 

Treasurer : 
J. E. Burnett Buckenham, M.D., 

Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia. 

Executive Committee: 

Terms Expire 191 5. 

Daniel W. Nead, M.D. 

George A. Gorgas, Esq. 

Rev. John Baer Stoudt. 

Terms Expire 191 6. 

Naaman H. Keyser, D.D.S. 

William K. T. Sahm, M.D. 

Benjamin F. Fackenthal, Jr., Sc.D. 

Terms Expire 19 17. 

Abraham S. Schropp, Esq. 

Prof. Albert G. Rau, Ph.D. 

Porter W. Shimer, Ph.D. 

Terms Expire 191 8. 

Rev. Theodore E. Schmauk, D.D., LL.D. 

Rev. Nathan C. Schaeffer, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D. 

Ulysses S. Koons, Esq. 

Terms Expire 1919. 

Rev. L. Kryder Evans, D.D. 

Julius F. Sachse, Litt.D. 

Charles R. Roberts, Esq. 




Pennsylvania-German Society 



Held in the First Reformed Church, Lancaster, Pa., 

On Friday, November 13, 1914. 

-TtHE first session of the Twenty-fourth Annual Meet- 
^^ ing of the Pennsylvania-German Society was called 
to order by the President, Dr. Julius F. Sachse, in the 
First Reformed Church, Lancaster, Pa., at half past ten 
o'clock, on Friday morning, November 13, 19 14, In the 
presence of an excellent gathering of members and friends 
of the Society. 

After a hearty welcome had been extended to the Society 
on the part of the authorities of the city of Lancaster, an 
earnest Invocation was offered by Rev. John S. Stahr, D.D,, 
LL.D., a former President of the Society. Upon motion 
duly made and seconded the reading of the minutes of the 
last annual meeting was dispensed with. 

The President thereupon called for the annual report of 
the Secretary, which here follows In full. 

6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Report of the Secretary, 
Prof. George T. Ettinger, Ph.D. 

Mr. President and Fellow-members of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society: The Secretary is very happy to be able to 
report to you in annual meeting assembled that, during 
the year now drawing to a close, the Society has main- 
tained its usual measure of prosperity and has continued 
to further the noble work for which it was established by 
the loving sons of loyal fathers. 

In all phases of its activities, in its aims and its efforts, 
its ideals and its endeavors, our Society has remained true 
to the spirit in which it was founded, and true to the spirit 
in which it has prospered. As heretofore, the Executive 
Committee has continued to direct and protect the interests 
of the Society in the interim between one annual meeting^ 
and the next. In order to do this, the Executive Commit- 
tee convened six times during the past year, in January, 
May, June, July, September and October. One of the 
most important items of business considered at these meet- 
ings was the revised constitution proposed by B. F. Fack- 
enthal, Jr., ScD., at the last annual meeting and referred 
to the Executive Committee for revision, if necessary, be- 
fore its presentation for final action at this meeting. The 
Executive Committee devoted a great deal of time and 
serious thought to the revision of the proposed constitu- 
tion. As the proposer of the new document. Dr. Facken- 
thal, was absent on an extended tour through Europe and 
the East, and thus was unable to meet with the Committee, 
it was deemed proper, out of deference to Dr. Fackenthal, 
and to enable him to go over the entire matter with the 
Executive Committee, to ask the Society at this meeting to 
extend the time for presenting the final revision of the 

Report of the Secretary. 7 

Constitution for one year, until the annual meeting in 
19 1 5. The Executive Committee unanimously recom- 
mends that the Society accordingly postpones final action 
until next year. 

During the year another volume has been added to the 
long and valuable list of annual publications that contain 
the proceedings and the papers of the Society. It is 
hardly necessary to state that, in value of content, in rich- 
ness of illustration and in beauty of mechanical make-up, 
the book is a fitting companion to its many forerunners in 
the same series. 

In view of the fact that a number of members are in 
arrears, it may not be out of place for the Secretary to re- 
mind the members of the following action taken by the 
Executive Committee at its meeting September 3, 19 14: 
*' The Treasurer is instructed to notify members in arrears 
that their volum-es are being held for them and that, if 
they do not at once pay their dues so as to be able to secure 
the volumes, these same volumes may be sold and the said 
delinquent members shall thus forfeit any claim to them." 
It was furthermore resolved that any member, owing dues 
for three years to October, 1914, and not responding to 
this notice, shall be dropped from the roll of membership. 

Last year 451 names were reported on the rolls of the 
Society; since that report sixteen new members were 
elected, three resigned, two were dropped and, as far as 
has come to the knowledge of the Secretary, five have died. 
This leaves 457 names on the roll of active membership. 

The unusual prominence of the members that have 
passed away is worthy of note: 

Edward Welles, a leading citizen of Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
Hon. James A. Beaver, ex-Governor of Pennsylvania, 

8 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Judge of the Superior Court of this State, and a 
former President of this Society. 
Hon. George F. Baer, President of the Philadelphia and 
Reading Railroad, and a former President of this 
Hon. Christopher Heydrick, formerly a member of our 
National House of Representatives, and at the time 
of his death one of the Vice-Presidents of the Penn- 
sylvania-German Society. 
Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman, of Reading, Pa., the veteran 
editor and cultured litterateur, also a former Presi- 
dent of the Pennsylvania-German Society. 
In view of the serious, nay the almost Irreparable loss 
sustained by the Society In the death of these able and dis- 
tinguished members, it may not be amiss to urge you, my 
colleagues of the Pennsylvania-German Society, to consti- 
tute yourselves a general committee on membership and 
increase the number of active names on our rolls. Thus 
you will strengthen the Society, increase its influence, and 
extend the sphere of Its usefulness. Can not each one of 
us secure at least one new member during the coming year? 
I am quite sure that all of you will join the Secretary in 
wishing the Pennsylvania-German Society another year of 
unbounded prosperity and permanent progress, in which 
our organization may accomplish still greater things and 
thus achieve still greater triumphs. 

In accordance with the recommendation of the Execu- 
tive Committee as contained in the report of the Secretary 
the Society resolved to postpone action on the new consti- 
tution until such time as may suit the Executive Com-, 

■iKfliMS.^IIm^'^Milt&MitmiS^it^- ■ 

Treasurer's Annual Report. 9 

Treasurer's Annual Report. 
Dr. J. E. Burnett Buckenham then presented the fol- 

Repo^'^ of the Treasurer of the Pennsylvania- 

G-..vMAN Society from October 31, 1913, to 

November 12, 19 14. 


To balance received from Dr. Julius F. Sachse, former 

Treasurer $1,981.99 

To annual dues received $1,089.00 

To interest on bonds ...... ..T7.T..1.. . 40.00 

To publications sold 235.00 1,364.00 


Stenographer, annual meeting 2.00 

Clerical services 33'88 

Rent safe deposit box, Penn. Nat. Bank 5.00 

Dues, Pa. Fed. Hist. Societies 2.00 

Printing Volume XXII of Proceedings 810.29 

Photogravure plates, Gilbo & Co 28.75 

Photographs, W. H. Rau 4.00 

Electroplates, Electrotint Eng. Co. 30.33 

Translating and transcribing manuscript 35'9i 

Expressage, postage and sundries, New Era Co 49.66 

Books, postage id sundries, J. F. Sachse 17.06 

Printing, stationery and sundries 74'30 

Postage and sundries 57-13 

Printing half tones for Vol. XXII 98.75 

Cash on hand 9.84 


Balance in bank November 12, 1914 2,087.09 


10 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 


Two $500 bonds E. & P. Co $1,000.00 

Balance in Life Fund included in active account $ 130.00 

J. E. Burnett Buckenham, 

Auditors' Report, 

In connection with the Treasurer's Report was also pre- 
sented the following report of the Auditors: 

To the Pennsylvania-German Society: 

The Auditing Committee appointed by the President of 
the Society to audit the account of Dr. J. E. B. Buckenham, 
Treasurer, covering the period from October 31, 19 13, to 
November 12, 19 14, Inclusive, report that they have ex- 
amined the said report and the accounts of the Treasurer 
for said period, and find them correct both as to Items of 
charge and discharge, principal and Income, contained 

Ulysses S. Koons, 
Alfred Percival Smith, 
Geo. Lewis Plitt, 

Auditing Committee. 

Both the report of the Treasurer and the report of the 
Auditors were received and approved by formal motion. 

Death of Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman. 

At this time the attention of the members was called to 
the death of Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman, whose funeral 
was taking place In the neighboring city of Reading at the 
very time of the annual meeting. Sincere words of eulogy 
were spoken by H. WInslow Fegley, of Reading; Benja- 
min M. Nead, Esq., of Harrlsburg; and Rev. Theodore 

Death of Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman. ii 

E. Schmauk, D.D., of Lebanon. In accordance with a 
formal resolution the Executive Committee later appointed 
Messrs. Nead and Fegley who reported the subjoined 
minute which was adopted by the Executive Committee 
and is inserted here for permanent record. 

Colonel Thoivias Cadwallader Zlmmerman. 

The undersigned committee appointed by the Executive 
Committee of the Pennsylvania-German Society to prepare 
and report a minute upon the death of Colonel Zimmer- 
man beg leave to report as follows: 

Thomas Cadwallader Zimmerman was born in Lebanon, 
Pennsylvania, January 23, 1838. Here he spent his boy- 
hood days and received his education in the public schools. 

As a Newspaper Man. 

At the age of thirteen Mr. Zimmerman entered the office 
of the Lebanon Courier as a printer's apprentice. After 
serving his time there he went to the Philadelphia Inquirer, 
where he remained until 1856, when he entered the office of 
the Berks and Schuylkill Journal at Reading as a journey- 
man printer. Three years later, in 1859, he engaged as a 
printer on the state laws in the establishment of Dr. Robert 
Gibbs, at Columbia, South Carolina. The following year 
he returned to Reading, and became connected with the 
Berks and Schuylkill Journal. When the proprietor of 
that Journal, Mr. Knabb, shortly after was elected post- 
master of Reading, Mr. Zimmerman became his clerk, 
which position he held until Mr. Knabb's retirement in 
1865. Mr. Zimmerman then became associated as co- 
proprietor with Mr. Knabb in the publication of the Berks 
and Schuylkill Journal, which afterwards, in '69, absorbed 

12 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

the Reading Times, and two years later consolidated with 
the Evening Dispatch, under the name of the Times and 
Dispatch. The Reading Times Publishing Company was 
organized in 1897, when Mr. Zimmerman was named as 
president and editor. From his newspaper work Col. 
Zimmerman retired in October, 1908. 

What the newspaper fraternity thought of Col. Zim- 
merman as editor and proprietor of a newspaper can not 
be better voiced than in the language used by the Memorial 
Committee appointed by the Newspaper Fraternity of 
Reading at the time of Col. Zimmerman's death : 

" In the death of Thomas C. Zimmerman the newspaper fra- 
ternity of Reading has lost a valued friend, who for many years 
was one of its most talented members. Enterprising and aggressive 
in the journalistic field, and an able and versatile writer, he made 
his impress upon the community in which he led an honored life 
for more than half a century. His literary genius was of a high 
order. A poet of natural instinct, he left many choice expressions 
of the sentiments of his kindly feelings. His translations of Ger- 
man masterpieces were so well rendered as to have given him last- 
ing fame, while his skill in the rendition of English poems into the 
Pennsylvania German vernacular was equally meritorious. He 
was an earnest and indefatigable worker in behalf of perpetuating 
the history and traditions of the Pennsylvania Germans, and gave 
valuable aid in the organization of the Pennsylvania German So- 
ciety of which he was one of the most distinguished presidents. As 
an enthusiastic nature lover he was a frequent visitor to points of 
interest in the vicinity of his adopted home, and called attention to 
their remarkable picturesqueness in imperishable words. Chosen 
to serve in boards of great public importance, he attended to all the 
duties incumbent upon him with ability and fidelity. A man 
among men he was best known by his warm friendship and gen- 
erous, affectionate disposition. His departure is sincerely mourned 
by a large circle of friends and acquaintances. * After life's fitful 

Death of Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman. 13 

fever, he sleeps well,' and of his passing so gently from this earth 
it can be said, in his favorite lines : 

"So fades a summer cloud away; 

So sinks the gale when storms are o'er; 
So gently shuts the eye of day; 

So dies a wave along the shore." 

As a Historian and Literary Man. 

Very early in life Mr. Zimmerman began his reading, 
both of prose and poetry. He had a great talent for 
translating, and he made his translations one of the promi- 
nent features of his newspaper. Many translations from 
the German classics Into English appeared from time to 

One of his most noted translations was the Prussian 
National Battle Hymn, which appeared In the Berlin 
(Germany) Times, with a half-tone portrait of the author 
of the translation. Very good work was also done by Mr. 
Zimmerman by his translations of English classics into 
Pennsylvania German. Among the first of these was 
Clement C. Moore's *' 'Twas the Night Before Christmas." 
His most noteworthy translation was that of Luther's 
Battle Hymn, which attracted the attention of eminent 
divines, professors, publicists, poets, historians and others 
throughout the land. 

He was also the author of the official hymn used by the 
Berks County Historical Society at the Sesqul-Centennlal 
Celebration, and also of the memorial hymn sung at the 
unveiling of the McKinley monument In the City Park at 
Reading. The published collection of Col. Zimmerman's 
translations he called " 011a Podrlda," and It has an ex- 
ceedingly wide circulation. 

14 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Public Activities. 

Mr. Zimmerman was for many years trustee of the board 
of the State Asylum at Wernersville. He was a director 
of the Reading Free Public Library; he was a member of 
the National Conference of Chanties and Corrections; 
president of the Pennsylvania Association of Superintend- 
ents and Trustees of Insane Asylums; one of the founders 
and president of the Pennsylvania-German Society ( 1908) ; 
one of the founders and member of the Historical Society 
of Berks County; Vice-President of the Pennsylvania Chau- 
tauqua Association, 

As a magazine writer he was Interesting and prolific; 
one of his latest productions being "Glimpse of Camp 
Life; a Day and Night with Campers on the Susque- 
hanna," published In the Mountain and Stream Journal. 

As a public speaker Mr. Zimmerman was well known 
and much sought after, on any and all occasions, but par- 
ticularly at historical events. 

He was selected to write the memorial ode for the dedi- 
cation of the McKInley monument at Reading in 1905. 
This ode was sung by a large chorus. 

In recognition of his literary successes, the degree of 
Doctor of the Humanities was conferred upon him by 
Muhlenberg College In 1904. 

His Military Record. 
Col. Zimmerman had a brief career as a soldier during 
the War of the Rebellion. He was a member of Com- 
pany C, 42d Penna. Volunteers. 

His Domestic Life. 
Col. Zimmerman was happy In the choice of his voca- 
tion, which he enjoyed to the fullest, and his home life was 

President's Annual Address. iS 

ideal. He was married to Tamsie T. Kauffman, of Read- 
ing, on the nth of June, 1867. She died a few years ago, 
leaving the Colonel in loneliness, but his cure for this was 
his love of nature. He enjoyed mountain and stream and 
beautiful country side, and it was his habit for nearly forty 
years to take long walks daily into the country. 

Col. Zimmerman took ill on Wednesday, October 28, 
19 14. He was taken to the hospital from his residence at 
150 N. Fifth Street, Reading, where his condition became 
critical. He died Monday, November 9, 19 14. 

His zeal in forwarding the Interests and his love for the 
work of the Pennsylvania-German Society were notable. 
We shall miss his cheerful personality, his valuable advice, 
and his diligent service. So it is fitting that this Memorial 
Tribute should be entered upon our minutes. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Benjamin Matthias Nead, 
H. WiNSLOw Fegley, 


President's Annual Address. 

The President of the Society, Julius F. Sachse, Litt.D., 
then delivered the following address: 

♦JTT is just twenty-four years ago. It was in November, 
■■ 1890, when the late Dr. W. H. Egle, the State Li- 
brarian at Harrisburg, consulted with me, at a meeting of 
the Pennsylvania Historical Society at Philadelphia, upon 
the advisability of forming a patriotic hereditary society 
from the descendants of the early German and Swiss emi- 
grants to Pennsylvania upon the same lines as the lately 
formed Society of the Sons of the Revolution, from which 
so many Pennsylvania-Germans were debarred, as it was 

i6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

their ancestors who had helped to feed and clothe the pa- 
triot army, but had not given any military service. 

The outcome of these suggestions was that an article 
appeared in the Philadelphia Inquirer advocating the for- 
mation of a hereditary Patriotic Society by the descendants 
of the Early German and Swiss Settlers of Pennsylvania. 
This proposition was at once taken up by various news- 
papers in eastern Pennsylvania, notably by the Lebanon 
Daily Report and the New Era of Lancaster. 

This resulted in a correspondence upon the subject be- 
tween Dr. W. H. Egle and one of the editors of the Nezv 
Era, at Lancaster. The result was that Dr. Egle came 
to Lancaster on February 14, 1891, and in the editorial 
rooms of the New Era, met Rev. John S. Stahr, Rev. Max 
Hark, Professor Buehrle, E. O. Lyte and F. R. Diffen- 
derffer, who had been invited to meet him. 

After a full and free discussion of the whole question, 
it was decided to invite a number of representative men in 
the German counties of eastern Pennsylvania to an in- 
formal conference in the city of Lancaster, on the 26th 
day of February, 1891. 

This meeting was held in the study of Rev. J. Max 
Hark at the Moravian parsonage. Nine counties were 
represented by sixteen representative men, who were the 
actual founders of this Society. 

Carbon County — E. H. Rauch. 

Chester County — Julius F. Sachse. 

Dauphin County — 'W. H. Egle, E. W. S. Parthemore, 
Maurice C. Eby. 

Lancaster County — ^J. Max Hark, H. A. Brickenstein, 
Frank R. Diffenderffer. 

Lebanon County — ^Theodore E. Schmauk, Lee L. Grum- 

President's Annual Address. 17 

Lehigh County — Edwin Albright, A. R. Home. 

Luzerne County — F. K. Levan. 

Northampton County — ^Jeremiah S. Hess, Paul de 

York County — Hiram Young. 

Of these early pioneers, there are now but four surviv- 
ing members of the Society — viz., Schmauk, Diffenderffer, 
Hess and Sachse. At this meeting there was considerable 
discussion as to the name and objects of the proposed So- 
ciety, when it was resolved that a general call be issued 
for a convention, using the name Pennsylvania-German 
Society, to be held in the city of Lancaster on the 15th day 
of April, 1 89 1. 

When the convention held in the court house at Lancas- 
ter was called to order it was found that 16 counties were 
represented by 31 delegates, viz., 

Dauphin County — ^W. H. Egle, E. W. S. Parthemore, 
Maurice C. Eby. 

Lancaster County — R. K. Buehrle, H. A. Brickenstein, 
F. R. Diffenderffer, John S. Stahr, J. Max Hark, E. O. 

Berks County — T. C. Zimmerman, George F. Baer, H. 
A. Muhlenberg. 

Lehigh County — A. R. Home, Edwin Albright. 

Northampton County — Paul de Schweinitz, Jeremiah 
S. Hess. 

York County — Hiram Young. 

Lebanon County — L. L. Grumbine, S. P. Heilman, 
Theodore E. Schmauk, Grant Weldman. 

Chester County — Julius F. Sachse. 

Erie County — Benjamin Whitman. 

Cumberland County — C. P. Humrich. 

Franklin County — Benjamin M. Nead. 

i8 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Adams County — Daniel Eberly. 

Carbon County — E. H. Rauch. 

Luzerne County — F. K. Levan. 

Centre County — James A. Beaver. 

Washington County — Boyd Crumrine. 

Philadelphia County — S. W. Pennypacker. 

At this meeting the status of the Society and its mem- 
bership was finally determined, and the constitution 

This document sets forth (and I especially wish to im- 
press upon all present, who are not members of our So- 
ciety) that this organization is strictly a Native American 
organization with no entanglements with any foreign 

We are not less Americans because our ancestors came 
from the German Fatherland over 115 years ago, to these 
western wilds, settled here ; cleared the forests, and turned 
the wilderness into fertile fields, suffered under the incur- 
sions of the savages, who were incited to fury by the 
French and English, and later fought for the independ- 
ence of their adopted country, and were important factors 
in establishing the American government under the present 

It must not be forgotten that it was Frederick Augustus 
Muhlenberg, a Pennsylvania-German, who was the first 
speaker of the United States House of Representatives, 
and that of the two Pennsylvanians in the Hall of Fame, 
in the Capitol at Washington, one. Major General Peter 
Muhlenberg, is of Pennsylvania origin; some of whose de- 
scendants are members at present. 

Many of the early German settlers were of religious 
faiths which opposed the bearing of arms, but it did not 
forbid them from nursing the sick and wounded soldiers 

Presidents Annual Address. 19 

back to health, or if they died giving them a Christian 
burial, as shown by the records of Bethlehem and Ephrata 
in Pennsylvania. Then again it was these very German 
settlers and their children, who clothed and fed the Ameri- 
can army, during the critical period, while they were in 
winter quarters upon the bleak hillsides at Valley Forge, 
in the Memorable Winter of 1777-1778. 

The German counties of eastern Pennsylvania were the 
granaries of the American Army, whenever the tide of the 
conflict surged to this vicinity. 

Bancroft has well said of the Germans in Pennsylvania ; 
"Neither they nor their descendants have laid claim to all 
that is their due." They have permitted their more ag- 
gressive neighbors to deny them a proper place even on the 
historic page. 

It is the aim and privilege of the Pennsylvania-German 
Society to controvert the slanders so ruthlessly made 
against the race, and place it in its proper light before the 
community at large. 

But to return to our history, the first annual meeting 
was held at Harrisburg, October 14, 1891 — nine papers 
were read upon different subjects by prominent speakers; 
during the following year 1892, a mid-summer meeting 
was held at Mt. Gretna, July 18, 1892, at which a paper 
was read upon " The True Heroes of Provincial Penn- 
sylvania." It is to be regretted that these summer meet- 
ings were not kept up. 

The second annual meeting was held at Lebanon, Octo- 
ber 12, 1892. Four historical papers were read at this 
meeting, followed by eight addresses at the banquet In the 
evening. Monday, July 17, 1893, was celebrated as 
Pennsylvania-German Day at the Pennsylvania Chatauqua 
at Mt. Gretna. The volume of Proceedings for this 

20 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

year contains a list of members with short biographical 
notes wherever obtainable; 164 in number. This volume 
also contains the first installment of church records, viz., 
Trinity Lutheran Church of Lancaster. 

The third annual meeting was held at York, October 
II, 1893. Five historical papers were read, one by the 
venerable Rev. Dr. J. G. Morris, president of the Mary- 
land Historical Society and who was the son of a Revo- 
lutionary officer, an " actual son of the Revolution." In 
the evening five addresses were made at the banquet. In 
1894 Pennsylvania-German Day was again observed at 
Mt. Gretna, July 19, 1894 — 95 additional biographical 
sketches of members were also published in this volume. 

The fourth annual meeting was held at Reading, Octo- 
ber 3, 1894. There were two papers read at this meeting, 
the chief addresses, nine in number, were delivered at the 
banquet in the evening. 

The fifth annual meeting was held in the historic city 
of Bethlehem, October 6, 1895. It was at this meeting 
that the insignia of the Society was adopted. At the 
meeting there was but a single paper and poem read, the 
principal addresses being at the banquet held at the old 
Historic Sun Inn. 

Up to this period the papers presented at the annual 
meetings of the Pennsylvania-German Society were of a 
disconnected and more or less desultory character; at the 
sixth annual meeting of the Society at Philadelphia, Octo- 
ber 25, 1896, the true work of the Pennsylvania-German 
Society materialized; this was the beginning of a narrative 
and critical history of the German Influence in the settle- 
ment and development of the great commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania upon the same lines as Justin Winsor's crit- 
ical History of North America. 





/Presidents Annual Address. 21 

It was our fellow member, the late Dr. Stille, former 
prevost of the University of Pennsylvania, historian and 
scholar, who said: "Of all the races which settled on the 
soil of Pennsylvania, the German form a very important 
part of the bed-rock of the civilization of the state." 

What can a man know of that civilization who is igno- 
rant '^f the special history of the Pennsylvania-Germans? 
Mu^h that is falsely called history has been written without 
SJiCh knowledge. 

It is this lacking knowledge which the Pennsylvania- 
German Society seeks to supply, by this series of mono- 
graphs, each one by an acknowledged authority upon his 
subject, and forming a complete volume by itself; no other 
of the patriotic hereditary societies can show a historical 
series equal to these 25 publications issued under the 
auspices of the executive committee of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society. 

This series of our Proceedings is to be found in a 
number of the great libraries of our colleges and cities, 
and are quoted as the authority upon Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man history. 

A number of sections of this great work remain to be 
written, for which we are looking to some of the younger 
members of this Society. 

Abstracts from two sections of this great work were 
read at the annual meeting, October 25, 1896. 

1. The "Fatherland" showing the part it bore in the 
discovery, exploration and development of the western 
continent, with special reference to this Commonwealth. 
This section consists of 224 pages, 19 plates, with two 
maps and numerous Illustrations in the text. 

2. The German exodus to England in 1709, by Frank 


r ■• 

22 The Pennsylvania-German Society. ' 

Reid Diffenderffer — 157 pages, 16 plates and many illus- 
trations in text. 

These two monographs are published in Volume VII 
of our Proceedings, fully illustrated with portraits, maps, 
views and facsimiles. 

From that time on there have been published one or two 
contributions of this great work by some of the moit pro- 
found Pennsylvania German Historical Students in P'^nn- 
sylvania, 23 chapters in addition to the two named havi, 
been published — each one a complete volume by itself; a 
number of these books are already out of print. We will 
give here a short resume of the titles: Any one who wants 
a complete itemized list of our publications is referred to 
the descriptive list, lately issued by our Treasurer, Dr. J. 
E. B. Buckenham, which can be had for the asking. 

Part 3: German Emigration to America, 1 709-1 740, 

by Rev. H. E. Jacobs, D.D. 
Part 4: Settlement of Germantown, by Hon. Samuel 

W. Pennypacker. 
Part 5 : German Emigration from New York, by Rev. 

Matthias H. Richards, D.D. 
Part 6 : Domestic Life of the Pennsylvania-German 

Pioneer, by Rev. F. J. F. Schantz, D.D. 
Part 7: German Emigration into Pennsylvania, 1700- 

1775, Part 2, Redemptioners, by Frank Reid 

Part 8 : German Baptist Brethren or Dunkers, by 

George N. Falkenstein. 
Part 9: Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania, 1638-1800, 

by Theodore E. Schmauk, D.D. 
Part 10: Reformed Church in Pennsylvania, by Joseph 

H. Dubbs, D.D. 

President's Annual Address. 23 

Part 1 1 : The Music of the Ephrata Cloister, by Julius 

F. Sachse, Litt.D. 
Part 12: Schwenkf elders in Pennsylvania, by H. W. 

Part 13: American History from German Archives, by 

J. G. Rosengarten. 
Part 14: Daniel Falckner's Curieuse Nachricht, by Julius 

F. Sachse, Litt.D. 
Part 15 : Pennsylvania-German in the French and Indian 

War, by H. M. M. Richards. 
Part 16: Wreck of the Ship New Era, by Julius F. 

Sachse, Litt.D. 

Part 17: Gov. Joseph Hiester, A Historical Sketch, by 
H. M. M. Richards. 

Part 18: Pennsylvania-German in the Revolutionary 
War, by H. M. M. Richards. 

Part 19: Diary of a Voyage from Rotterdam to Phila- 
delphia in 1728, by Julius F. Sachse, Litt.D. 

Part 20 : A Brief History of the Colony of New Sweden, 
by Carolus David Arfwedson, 1825. 

Part 2 1 : An Account of the Manners of the German In- 
habitants of Pennsylvania by Rush, with an- 
notations by Theodore E. Schmauk, D.D. 

Part 22 : Early German American Newspapers, by Daniel 

Part 23 : The Lutheran Church in New Hanover, by 
Rev. J. J. Kline. 

Part 24: The Wayside Inns on the Lancaster Roadside, 
by J. F. Sachse. 

Part 25 : The Pennsylvania-German In the Settlement of 
Maryland, by D. W. Nead. 

In addition to these monographs there have been printed 

24 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

a number of early baptismal, marriage and burial records, 
which are of great value to the genealogist, as well as a 
number of other contributions not in the line of our critical 

Referring again to our annual meetings, they have been 
held in thirteen different cities In the state — viz. : Lancas- 
ter three, Harrisburg three, Philadelphia three, Allen- 
town two, Lebanon two, Reading two, Bethlehem two, 
York two and one each at Ephrata, Easton, Norristown, 
Germantown and RIegelsville. 

Among the following list of Presidents of the Pennsyl- 
vania-German Society will be found two governors, two 
generals, three judges, one naval officer, one brigade sur- 
geon, one U. S. postmaster general, one superintendent of 
public Instruction, five college presidents, seven prominent 
clergymen of different denominations, one great railroad 
president and several lawyers and journalists, viz.: 

1 89 1— William Henry Egle. 

1892 — Henry L. Fisher. 

1893 — George F. Baer. 

1894 — Rev. George C. Heckman. 

1895 — Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker. 

1896 — Frank R. DIffenderffer. 

1897 — Rev. Theodore E. Schmauk. 

1898 — Rev. Nathan C. Schaeffer. 

1899 — E. W. S. Parthemore. 

1900 — Rev. F. J. F. Schantz. 

1901 — Rev. Thomas Conrad Porter (died In office). 

1 90 1 — Prof. Charles H. HImes. 

1902 — Rev. Joseph Henry Dubbs. 

1903 — Rev. Joseph A. Selss. 

1904 — Rev. John S. Stahr. 

President's Annual Address. 25 

1905 — Hon. James A. Beaver. 
1906 — Hon. Gustav A. Endlich. 
1907 — Benjamin M. Nead. 
1908 — Hon. John Wanamaker. 
1909 — Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman. 
19 10 — John E. Roller. 
191 1 — Rev. H. E. Jacobs. 
19 1 2 — Lieut. H. M. M. Richards. 
19 13 — Benjamin F. Fackenthal. 
19 14 — ^Julius F. Sachse. 

Surely a list of which any organization may well be 
proud. — —- — ■ ■- 

Of the twenty-five members, honored with the presi- 
dential office, fifteen are still alive; ten have since died; 
one, Rev. Thomas Conrad Porter, D.D., died while in 

The membership of our Society, from a mere handful 
at the time of organization, has grown to upwards of 500 
members. It is not confined to the eastern counties of our 
state alone, as is occasionally charged. From Massachu- 
setts to Oregon in the west; from Canada in the north, 
even down to Peru in South Arnerica. 

In our territories even in the Philippines there are prom- 
inent men, who are proud to wear the rosette and insignia 
of the Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The term of office of the President for the year 19 13- 
14 expires to-day, who is the only member of the organiza- 
tion who has served continuously as an officer of this So- 
ciety from its organization: twenty-three years as Treas- 
urer and one year as President. 

It is with great pleasure that I turn over the office and 
gavel to one of Lancaster's most honored citizens. In his 

26 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

term will come the Silver Jubilee of the Society, and the 
retiring officer feels sure that the Society under his leader- 
ship will flourish under his administration. 

Thanking the members of the Pennsylvania-German 
Society for the honors they have bestowed upon me, and 
the executive committee for the support given me during 
the past twenty-four years, I can but express the hope and 
wish that the next quarter of a century may prove even 
more prosperous than the past, and that those of our suc- 
cessors who are present at the Golden Jubilee may have 
pleasant memories of the pioneer " hewers of wood and 
drawers of water" who conceived the plan and laid the 
foundations for the Pennsylvania-German Patriotic Hered- 
itary Society. 

Report of Committee on Bibliogr^^phy. 

The Committee on Bibliography, through its Chairman, 
Dr. S. P. Heilman, reported as follows: 

To The Pennsylvania-German Society : 

Your Committee on an Index of Pennsylvania-German 
Dialect Literature, authorized in the year 1908 to be ap- 
pointed and actualy appointed in the year 19 10, begs to 
report at this time, supplemental to former reports annually 
made since its first appointment, that very little progress 
has been made on this large and valuable project since our 
first and extended report made to the Society at its annual 
meeting held in the city of Harrisburg, October 20, 1911, 
at which time manuscript matter pertaining to said Index 
to the extent of about 400 pages was submitted along with 
the report made by our Committee at that time. 

This want of progress was, or Is, due to two reasons, 
namely, to a subsequent enlargement of the scope of the 

Report of Committee on Bibliography. 27 

Index along lines suggested by the gentleman authorized 
by your Society to review the matter then in manuscript 
form, the Rev. T. E. Schmauk, D.D., LL.D., which sug- 
gested enlargement required further research and along 
new lines, and for the further reason that the Committee's 
editor, Prof. H. H. Reichard, Ph.D., in the meantime, and 
for a period of about three years, had taken up his resi- 
dence, and was exclusively engaged in educational work, 
in the State of Illinois, far removed from his former 
sources of reference and information as to matter he 
needed, not only as to the enlarged lines he was to work 
out but as well also towards fully completing the Index as 
originally planned and in manuscript, partially completed, 
as submitted to your Society at Harrisburg in 191 1. 

We can now, however, report that Prof. Reichard has 
returned to the east, and again is in touch with, and near 
to, his former supply sources of reference and information 
material, that he is again actively at work on the Index 
project, that he is pushing the work with all possible ex- 
pedition, and is giving assurance that within a compara- 
tively short time, probably soon after this annual meeting 
of the Society, the manuscript of the Index as originally 
planned but now enlarged and improved, will be fully com- 
pleted, and be ready to be submitted to your Executive 
Committee, in view of all of which we respectfully ask for 
a continuance of our Committee. 

We also and again reiterate our abiding confidence in 
the inestimable value that is to accrue to your Society in 
the acquisition and possession of an Index of Pennsylvania- 
German Dialect Literature as comprehensive, complete 
and accurate as the finished manuscript shortly to be sub- 
mitted we know positively will be and our belief that the 
delays incident to the compiling and additional research 

28 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

work required as to this Index project will be fully com- 
pensated in the satisfaction that will be afforded the mem- 
bers of your Society when they come to study and peruse 
the Index after its completion and publication. 
Respectfully submitted, 

S. P. Heilman, 

Lebanon, Pa., 
November 13, 1914. 

Election of Officers. 

The following nominations, as suggested by the Execu- 
tive Committee, were presented by Dr. Schmauk: Presi- 
dent, Hon. William U. Hensel, LL.D., Litt.D., of Lan- 
caster, Pa.; Vice-Presidents, William F. Muhlenberg, 
M.D., LL.D., of Reading, Pa., Hon. Harman Yerkes, of 
Doylestown, Pa.; Treasurer, J. E. Burnett Buckenham, 
M.D., of Chestnut Hill, Pa; Executive Committee, Rev. 
L. Kryder Evans, D.D., of Pottstown, Pa., Charles R. 
Roberts, Esq., of AUentown, Pa., Julius F. Sachse, Litt.D., 
of Philadelphia, Pa. 

On motion duly made and seconded, the nominations 
were closed and the Secretary was instructed to cast the 
ballot of the Society for the above-mentioned nominees. 

The Secretary having cast the formal ballot of the 
Society for the said nominees, the President declared them 
the duly elected officers for the ensuing year. 

The meeting was then adjourned till half-past two 
o'clock in the afternoon to partake of the luncheon ten- 
dered by the newly-elected President of the Society, Hon.- 
William U. Hensel, at the Hamilton Club of Lancaster. 




B. DEC. 4, 1851 ; D. FEB. 27, 1915. 

Election of Officers. 29 


The rathskeller of the Hamilton Club was crowded 
with a happy company of Pennsylvania-Germans and their 
friends, gathered to enjoy the hospitality of Hon. William 
U. Hensel, the newly-elected President of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society. The rustic decorations, consisting of 
corn-stalks, pumpkins and other products of Lancaster 
County rural life, contributed not a little to the enjoyment 
of the following typical Pennsylvania-German menu. 


'-— - Scrapple 

Liver and Onions 

Sauer Kraut 

Schnitz and Knepf 

Tripe and Oysters Souse 

Red Beets 

Dutch Cheese 

Smear Case and Apple Butter 

Cider Coffee 

All the ladies and gentlemen fortunate enough to attend 
were unanimous in declaring the luncheon one of the most 
enjoyable and successful social entertainments ever ten- 
dered the members of the Society. The only thing that 
marred the perfect enjoyment of the occasion was the 
absence of the host Dr. Hensel, the state of whose health 
had necessitated a prolonged sojourn in the South. All 
present united in the sincere hope and prayer that he might 
speedily be restored to his usual full measure of health 
and strength. 


30 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Afternoon Session. 

After the delightful luncheon at the Hamilton Club the 
Society reconvened in the lecture room of the First Re- 
formed Church and listened to a paper on "The Condi- 
tion of Pennsylvania During Braddock's Expedition," 
presented by Dr. Julius F. Sachse. 

The reading of this paper was followed by a series of 
stereopticon views of old Germantown, presented and ex- 
plained by Dr. Sachse. 

One of the most interesting and Instructive features of 
the afternoon's programme was the exhibition of " Stiegel 
-Glass " with a delightful descriptive talk by Mrs. Albert 
K. Hostetter, of Lancaster, Pa., the wife of the first Vice- 
President of the Society. Mrs. Hostetter has gathered 
one of the finest collections of "Stiegel Glass" in the 
United States, of which collection she showed many rare 
and beautiful specimens. The explanatory lecture proved 
Mrs. Hostetter to be an enthusiastic collector and a 
thorough student of the subject. After this unique intel- 
lectual treat the meeting was adjourned to prepare for the 
festivities of the evening. 

Reception and Banquet. 

A goodly company of ladies and gentlemen gathered In 
the spacious quarters of the Hamilton Club and spent a 
delightful hour In social Intercourse preliminary to the 
annual banquet, which was set for seven o'clock In the 
banquet-hall of the Hamilton Club. 

Afte_rgrace_Md been said by. R^^^^^^ 

LL.D., the following menu was enjoyed by the assembled 
guests : 

Afternoon Session. 31 

Noodle Soup 

Roast Lancaster Turkey and Cranberries 

Mashed Potatoes 

Dried Corn Beets 

Cole Slaw 

Fried Oysters and Celery Salad 

Mince Pie Pumpkin Pie 

Dutch Head Cheese 

Ice Cream 

Cakes Coffee 

Benjamin M'. Nead, Esq., of Harrisburg, Pa., served 
as toastmaster and Mayor Frank B. McClain, of Lancas- 
ter, entertained the company with several songs rendered 
in fine style, after which wise and witty words were spoken 
by Mayor McClain, Dr. Henry H. Appel, Dr. H. M. M. 
Richards, Ulysses S. Koons, Esq., and Henry S. Borne- 
man, Esq. The banquet concluded with a silent toast to 
the memory of Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman. 

Thus ended the twenty-fourth annual meeting of the 
Pennsylvania-German Society. As the large company of 
guests slowly dispersed, they were unanimous In the enthu- 
siastic expressions of their appreciation of the hospitality 
of President Hensel, the Hamilton Club and the citizens 
of Lancaster in general. The interesting and instructive 
programme also called forth many comments of praise. 
Intellectually as well as socially, therefore, the Lancaster 
meeting of 19 14 must be regarded as one of the very best 
of the many good meetings of the Pennsylvania-German 
Society. ■ 

Biograpbical Sketches of ©eceaseb 

flDembers of the pcnnQ^lvnnm^ 

(5erman Societie 

Hon. George F. Baer, LL.D. _ 

Hon. James A. Beaver, LL.D. 

Hon. Maurice C. Eby. 

William Laubach, Esq. 

Prof. Lewis S. Shimmell, Ph.D. 

Hon. George Franklin Huff. ; 

George Rueger Oberholtzer. 

Thomas William Saeger. 

Christian Edgar Titzel. 

William Weis. 

Col. Thomas C. Zimmerman, L.H.D. 

[See minute in the Proceedings prepared by Special 




B. SEPT. 26, 1842; D. APRIL 26, 1914. 


Biographical Sketches of Deceased Members. 35 

Hon. George F. Baer, LL.D. 

Hon. George F. Baer belonged to the fourth generation 
of his family in the United States. His direct ancestor, 
Christopher Baer( Bar), came from Zweibruecken, Ger- 
many, with two brothers, Milchoir and Johannes, in the 
ship Phoenix, from Rotterdam, in 1743, arriving in Phila- 
delphia, September 30 of that year. He settled in North- 
ampton County with his wife, Katherine Wingert, and 
there purchased a large quantity of land, giving a farm to 
each of his six married children. Jacob, the youngest son, 
was born in what is now Whitehall Township, Lehigh 
County, Pennsylvania, in 1761, married, and in 1800 moved 
to a farm in Maryland, near Mount Savage Station, Alle- 
gheny County, where he resided until his death. Major 
Solomon Baer, his son by a second wife, Mary Elizabeth 
Hersch, was born in Lehigh County (then Northampton) , 
in 1794, and died in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, 
January 12, 1882. He married Anna Maria, daughter 
of George Baker, who was born February 2, 1797, and 
died October 5, 1888. He served as constable for sev- 
eral years and also justice of the peace, and held every rank 
in the militia from captain to brigade inspector. 

George Frederick Baer, the eighth child of Solomon 
and Anna Maria (Baker) Baer, was born in Somerset 
County, Pennsylvania, September 26, 1842. He attended 
Somerset Institute until the age of thirteen, when he entered 
the office of the Somerset Democrat, working as a type- 
setter for two years. Then he studied another year at 

36 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Somerset Institute, served as chief clerk and bookkeeper 
at the Ashtola Mills, about ten miles from Johnstown, for 
another year, and in the fall of i860, entered the Sopho- 
more class of Franklin and Marshall College, at Lan- 
caster. His course at college was interrupted by the Civil 
War. With his brother Harry he purchased the news- 
paper on which he had served his boyhood apprenticeship. 
The Somerset Democrat, and soon was left in sole charge of 
it as his brother became an officer in company B, 54th Regi- 
ment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. During this period he 
continued his studies as he intended to return to college 
and complete his course. In August, 1862, he raised a 
company of volunteers which was mustered into the United 
States service with young Baer, not yet twenty years of 
age, as captain. His regiment joined the Army of the 
Potomac at the second battle of Bull Run and fought at 
Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. Captain 
Baer was mustered out of service May 26, 1863, and 
returned to Somerset. 

He at once began to read law with his brothers William 
and Herman and was admitted to the bar in April, 1864. 
On January 22, 1868, he was admitted to the bar of Berks 
County, establishing his office and residence in Reading, 
Pennsylvania. Here his practice grew rapidly. In 1870 
he became counsel to the Philadelphia and Reading Rail- 
road and later became a director of the same. About this 
time he became a trusted confidential legal adviser in Penn- 
sylvania of J. Pierpont Morgan and was prominent in the 
reorganization of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad 
Company in 1 85 3 J of which cornpany^^^^^^^^^ 
dent in 1 90 1. In the words of another: "The entire sys- 
tem has prospered under President Baer's wise conserva- 
tive policies, and he will go down in history as one of the 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Members. 37 

great railroad executives of his time." He was also largely 
identified with the Reading Iron Company, the Temple 
Iron Company, the Pennsylvania Steel and the Cambria 
Steel companies, the Reading Paper Mills, the Penn Na- 
tional Bank, the Reading Hospital, the Reading Trust 
Company, Penn Common, the Wyomissing Club, the 
Reading Free Library, and the Berkshire Club. As Presi- 
dent of the Park Commission he was largely instrumental 
in securing Penn Common from the county authorities as 
the property of Reading. He also erected the first modern 
office building in Reading, a seven-story structure of eighty 

During his entire public life Mr. Baer's services as 
lecturer and platform speaker were in frequent demand. 
His printed addresses delivered before colleges and learned 
societies, at the dedication of the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument at Allentown, and before popular audiences, all 
show the thoughtful student of men and affairs, in whom 
culture and logic were happily blended. He also took a 
deep interest in Franklin and Marshall College, served as 
a trustee from 1872, and as the head of its board from 
1894 to the time of his death. In 1886 the college con- 
ferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws 
(LL.D.) and in 1895 he was chosen Vice-President of the 
Alumni Association. 

Although an ardent Democrat, he never accepted pub- 
lic office, was a strong " Gold Democrat," and by his " Ap- 
peal to Democrats " vigorously opposed William J. Bryan 
in his "silver heresy." 

-" in 1866 Mr. Baer married Emily, daiTghfer of John"' 

O. Kimmel, of Somerset, Pennsylvania, who was a most 
worthy and helpful companion in the active and varied 
interests of her prominent husband. From this union 


The Pennsylvania-German Society, 

sprang the following children: Marlon, the wife of Wil- 
liam N. Appel; Helen, the wife of William Griscom Coxe; 
Mary, the wife of Isaac Hiester; Emily, the widow of 
Frank L. Connard; and Nellie, the wife of Heber L. 

The church-home of the family was the Second Re- 
formed Church of Reading. 

Mr. Baer was one of the founders of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society and presided over the convention at which 
the formal organization was effected. 

He died April 26, 19 14. 
^^^ As we survey the life and achievements of George F.- 
Baer, the most prominent trait in his character shows itself 
in his predominant industry. He was a tireless worker, 
and in his own life illustrated the spirit of one of his best 
known addresses, "Work is Worship." He attained dis- 
tinction and success not through influence or favor, but 
through his own indomitable will and strong belief in him- 
self, supported by an industry that was well-nigh tireless. 
Truly in his life, character and achievements George Fred- 
erick Baer personified the sterling qualities of his Penn- 
sylvania-German ancestry, by the cultivation of which 
qualities he became one of the leading citizens of his state 
and his nation. G. T. E. 


B. OCT. 21, 1837; D. JAN. 31, 1914. 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Members. 39 

Hon. James Addams Beaver, LL.D. 

James Addams Beaver was born at Mlllerstown, Perry- 
County, Pa., October 21, 1837. His father, Jacob Beaver 
(b. Nov. 28, 1805-d. Aug. 17, 1840), was a son of Peter 
Beaver (b. Dec. 25, 1782-d. Aug. 26, 1849), who mar- 
ried Elizabeth Gilbert and was a son of George Beaver 
(b. May I, 1755-d. Jan. 1836), who married Catharine 
Kieff er and was a son of George Beaver. 

The mother of the subject of this sketch was Ann Eliza 
Addams (b. Jan. 30, 1812-d. June 29, 1880), whose 
paternal grandmother was Barbara Ruth, of Berks County, 
and her maternal grandmother was Lydia Miller (b. Jan. 
2, 1791-d. March 5, 18 19), of the same county, whose 
mother was Elizabeth Feather, the daughter of Maria or 
Mary Levan. 

The Beavers came from Alsace In 1740, the Kieff ers 
came from Germany in 1748, and the Gilberts also came 
from Germany. Peter Beaver was a clergyman in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church and George Beaver served 
in the 4th Pennsylvania Battalion under Col. Anthony- 
Wayne in the American Revolution. All the greatgrand- 
fathers of James Addams Beaver, George Beaver, Samuel 
Gilbert, Isaac Addams, and Jacob Miller served in the 
Revolutionary War. William Addams, another ancestor, 
came from England and laid out the town of Adamstown, 
Lancaster "County, Pa., about 1761; 

James Addams Beaver was graduated from Jefferson 
College, Canonsburg, Pa., in 1856, read law and was ad- 

4© The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

mitted to the bar in 1858, practicing from 1859 to 1861, 
when he entered the service of his country and became 
Second Lieutenant of the Second Pennsylvania Infantry. 
On October 21, 1861, he was appointed Lieutenant-Col- 
onel of the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania Infantry and on Sep- 
tember 8, 1862, he became Colonel of the 148th Pennsyl- 
vania Infantry. He was breveted Brigadier-General of 
Volunteers for highly meritorious and distinguished con- 
duct throughout the campaign, particularly for valuable 
services at Cold Harbor while commanding a brigade, and 
was honorably discharged, December 22, 1864. He was 
-shot through the body at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863, 
was shot in the side at Petersburg, Va., in June, 1864, and 
lost a leg at Ream's Station, August 24, 1864. 

Upon his return from the war he resumed the practice 
of law at Bellefonte, Pa., and married Mary A., the 
daughter of Hon. H. N. McAllister on December 26, 

From 1870 to 1887 he served as Major-General of the 
National Guard of Pennsylvania, was defeated for Gover- 
nor of Pennsylvania by Robert E. Pattison in 1882, but 
was elected to succeed him in 1886, and served as Judge 
of the Superior Court of his native state from 1896 till his 
death, which occurred January 31, 19 14. He was presi- 
dent of the board of trustees of Pennsylvania State Col- 
lege, a delegate to the National Republican Convention in 
1880, vice-moderator of the Presbyterian General Assem- 
bly in 1888 and 1895, a member of the President's Com- 
mission to investigate the War Department in 1898, and 
a delegate to the General Missionary Conference, Edin- 
burgh, in 19 10. 

He received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Members. 41 

(LL.D.) from Hanover College, Indiana, Dickinson Col- 
lege, Pennsylvania, and the University of Edinburgh, Scot- 

Governor Beaver was elected to membership in the 
Pennsylvania-German Society, January 11, 1893, and 
served as president of the same in 1905. 

G. T. E. 

42 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Hon. Maurice C. Eby. 

Maurice C. Eby was bom at Middletown, Pennsyl- 
vania, in May, 1846. He was the eldest son of David 
Rupley Eby and Elizabeth Gross Eby. Before he was one 
year old, his parents removed with him to Harrisburg, 
which city continued to be his home for the remainder of 
his life. 

He was graduated from Lafayette College, and after 
leaving college he took a tour abroad, and was absent for 
more than three years. Most of his time abroad was spent 
at Geneva, Switzerland, and Carlsruhe, Baden. To pleas- 
ure and sight-seeing he added the more serious business of 
acquiring a practical knowledge of the German language, 
visiting at intervals many of the old world cities. 

He began his business career at Harrisburg as a mer- 
chant in 1 87 1. 

As a young man he was the patron of manly sports, and 
withal a practical reformer. A lover of animate nature, 
he could not endure the ill treatment or abuse of the faith- 
ful beast of burden and the domestic animals about him. 
He was officially appointed an agent for the prevention of 
cruelty to children and animals, and he did not hesitate to 
enforce the law against cruelty to dumb animals and the ill 
treatment of children. He was known as a practical and 
kind-hearted agent of these societies. 

In public life he was to a degree a'ctiv 2\.s Mayor arid"' 

chief executive of the city of Harrisburg during the years 
1893, 4 and 5, he served conscientiously and faithfully, 



B. MAY, 1846; D. APRIL 4, 1914. 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Members. 43 

retiring gracefully, with no other aim for the rest of his 
life, as he himself put it, than "To remain a good citizen, 
obeying all the laws of the Commonwealth and the ordi- 
nances of the city; determined to perform a good deed 
daily, and make a blade of grass grow where none grew 

Mr. Eby was an active member of the Harrisburg 
Board of Trade, and became widely interested in munic- 
ipal affairs. He served as president of the Board of 
Trade during the year 1901, and remained interested in 
the affairs of Harrisburg until his death. 
- He was a lover of the past, and an absorbing reader of 
everything that pertained to it. He loved to wander through 
the foothills of history, but never arose to the higher planes 
of research and constructive work, although he was a valu- 
able adviser and instructive conversationalist in that 

He was an active member of the Historical Society of 
Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, for upwards of twenty- 
five years. He was one of the founders, and for a number 
of years a faithful member of the executive committee of 
the Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Mr. Eby was unmarried. He had scores of friends. 
His humane disposition, large-heartedness, and hospitable 
traits endeared him to all. He died, after some period of 
acute suffering, on Saturday, April 4, 19 14, at the age of 

44 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

William Laubach. 

William Laubach, born in Plainfield Township, North- 
ampton County, Pa., February i8, 1833, was a son oF 
Abraham Laubach (b. Nov. 19, i8o8-d. Sept. 15, 1890),- 
whose father, Adam Laubach (b. Dec. 23, 1766), was a 
son of John George Laubach (b. Nov. 11, 1723), and a 
grandson of Christian Laubach, who was born in Ger- 
many, emigrated from the Palatinate In August, 1738, 
and arrived in Philadelphia, September 16, 1738. 

The mother of William Laubach was Lydia Beidel- 
man (b. April 12, 1809-d. April 30, 1895), a daughter 
of Abraham Beidelman (b. Nov. 26, 1772-d. Sept. 11, 
1857), a son of Samuel Beidelman (b. May 30, 1750- 
d. April 16, 1836), whose father, Elias Beidelman (b. 
Sept. 27, 1707-d. Oct. 25, 1781), was born in the Palati- 
nate and emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1730. 

While a boy William Laubach attended the district 
school and worked on his father's farm. At the age of 
fifteen he took a position in a country store at Kesslersville, 
where he remained until 1853, when he came to Easton, 
Pa., and entered the store of the late Jacob Hay, then a 
prominent retail dealer in dry goods, with whom he re- 
mained about five years, after which he spent a year as 
clerk in the establishment of Jacob Rader, at that time one 
of the leading merchants of Easton. On April 6, i860, 
he opened a dry goods store in a room 12 by 40 feet in 
size, on a part of the site the extensive establishment now 
occupies. From this humble beginning the business grew, 
more space was needed, one property after the other was 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Members. 45 

added, until now the firm of William Laubach and Sons 
occupies a business home with a frontage of one hundred 
and seven feet and a floor space of more than sixty thou- 
sand square feet. In 1908 the five sons of the founder of 
the business were taken into the partnership and the firm 
was incorporated under the name of William Laubach and 

On Aug. 19, i860, Mr. Laubach married Mary 
Frances, daughter of the late George and Annie Horn, of 
Easton, Pa. This union was blessed with twelve children. 

Mr. Laubach was prominent as a Mason, being a mem- 

-ber of Easton Lodge, No. 152, F. and A. M., Easton 

Chapter, No. 173, R. A. M., Hugh De Payens Com- 

mandery, No. 19, Knights Templar, of Easton, and Rajah 

Temple, of Reading. 

For sixty years Mr. Laubach was an active and influ- 
ential member of the First Reformed Church of Easton. 
He served as a member of the school board, as a director 
in the Northampton National Bank and as a member of the 
Easton Board of Trade. "He was always interested in 
everything which promised to uplift the business, indus- 
trial, educational, moral and spiritual welfare of the com- 
munity. His counsel was often sought and his opinions 
were freely accepted, though he was deferential and never 
advanced his personal ideas except in a modest and cour- 
teous way. He was of inestimable service and held the 
respect and in his latter days the veneration of this entire 
section. He was a liberal giver to the church and his 
charity in this community was limited only by his good 

Mr. Laubach died July 30, 19 14. 
He joined the Pennsylvania-German Society October 
25, 1900. G. T. E. 

46 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Prof. Lewis S. Shimmell, Ph.D. 

Lewis Slifer Shimmell, born September 13, 1852, In 
Springfield Township, Bucks County, Pa., was a son of 
Levi Oberholtzer Shimmell (b. 1826-d. 1903), whose 
father John Shimmell (b, i8oo-d. i860) married Hannah 
Oberholtzer (b. i8oi-d. 1878). John was a son of 
Christian Shimmell (d. 1828) and a grandson of George 
Shimmell, who died in 1800. 

The mother of Lewis S. Shimmell was Mary Slifer (b. 
1824-d. 1877) whose father, John Slifer (b. i8oo-d. 
1859), married a Miss Shelly (b. 1802-d. 1867). John 
Slifer's father and grandfather were also named John and 
the greatgrandfather was Henry, who was bom in 1700 
and died in 1796. George Shimmell came to America in 
1753, and Henry Slifer came in 1739; both came from 

The subject of this sketch studied at the Wadsworth, 
Ohio, Seminary, and was graduated from the Millersville 
State Normal School, in the normal course in 1875 and in 
the scientific course in 1877. 

In 1878 he married Sarah Bare, of Bareville, Lancaster 
County, Pa. 

In 1886, while superintendent of the schools of Hunt- 
ingdon, Pa., he established The School Gazette, of which 
he was the editor for many years. In 1893 he was elected 
"to a position in the high schbbr of Hafrisburg, Pa., whicH 
position he filled in a most satisfactory manner for nearly 
a score of years. In 1900 he completed postgraduate 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Members. 47 

work in pedagogy, constitutional history and American 
history, for which the University of Pennsylvania con- 
ferred on him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. His 
thesis on " Border Warfare in Pennsylvania During the 
Revolution " has been widely circulated. He also wrote 
and published three successful text-books, "The Pennsyl- 
vania Citizen," "A History of Pennsylvania," and "Our 
State and Nation." Of " The Pennsylvania Citizen " 
120,000 copies were sold in less than ten years. 

Dr. Shimmell joined the Pennsylvania-German Society 
on November 7, 1907. 

He died March 9, 19 14. — 

G. T. E. 


48 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Hon. George Franklin Huff. 

John Frederick von Hoof emigrated From Berlin, Ger- 
many, about the year 1754. He was born July 8, 1734, 
and died April 26, 18 16. His son was George Huff, who 
was born August, i, 1779, and died February 24, 1845, 
and married Anna Mull. From this union sprang George 
Huff (b. 18 13 — d. 1858), the father of the subject of 
this sketch. The mother was Carolyne (b. September 5, 
1 8 17), daughter of Henry K. Boyer, whose father was 
Jacob Boyer (b. 1754 — d. February 11, 1796). 

George Franklin Huff was born at Norristown, Pa., 
July 16, 1842. He received his preliminary education in 
the public schools of MIddletown, Pa., and later at Al- 
toona. Pa., where he learned a trade In the car shops of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. At an early age 
he entered the banking house of William M. Lloyd and 

In 1867 he removed to Westmoreland County, Penn- 
sylvania, to engage In the banking business. In 1871 he 
married Henrietta, daughter of the late Judge Jeremiah 
M. Burrell, of Pennsylvania, afterwards United States 
District Judge and Chief Justice of Kansas by appoint- 
ment of President Franklin Pierce. He was a member of 
the National Republican Convention in 1880, where he 
was one of the memorable " 306," who followed the lead 
of Roscoe Conkling in the effort to nominate General U.- 
S. Grant for the Presidency. Mr. Huff was president of 
the Keystone Coal and Coke Company, one of the largest 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Members. 49 

producers of gas and steam coal in the United States. He 
was also largely interested in many other business enter- 
prises in various parts of Pennsylvania, in addition to his 
banking business in Greensburg, in which he had been 
engaged since his youth. He was also president of the 
Westmoreland Hospital Association. 

In 1884 he was elected to the Senate of Pennsylvania, 
in which he represented the Thirty-ninth District for four 
years. He was elected to the Fifty-second Congress from 
the Twenty-first District, then composed of Westmore- 
land, Indiana, Armstrong and Jefferson Counties; was 
chosen Congressman-at-Large from Pennsylvania to the 
Fifty-fourth Congress; and was reelected to the Fifty- 
eighth Congress. 

After a life of such constant and varied activities he 
died April 18, 19 12. 

He was elected a member of the Pennsylvania-German 
Society November i, 1906. 


50 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

George R. Oberholtzer. 

The ancestor of George R. Oberholtzer came from the 
Palaflnate and arrived in America from Rotterdam on 
September 30, 1727. The earhest name found on Mr. 
Oberholtzer's application for membership in the Penn- 
sylvania-German Society was that of Samuel Oberholtzer 
or Oberholtz, who died in 1748. He was the son of Mar- 
tin Oberholtzer, who died in 1774. Martin's father was 
also called Martin, was born March 25, 1764, and died 
October 2, 1833. The father of Martin Oberholtzer was 
John Oberholser (observe the spelling), who was born 
February 28, 1793, and died January 24, 1875. The son 
of John Oberholser was Isaac Kurtz Oberholser, born 
May 21, 1836, and the father of George Rueger Ober- 
holtzer, the subject of this sketch, 

George Rueger Oberholtzer was born September 20, 
1867, at Terre Hill, Lancaster County, Pa., and after he 
had received the usual preliminary education in the schools 
of his native county, we find him serving the United 
States government as observer for the United States 
Weather Bureau at Charlotte, North Carolina. Later we 
find him at Erie, Pa., where he lost his life in an ice-boat 
accident on February 8, 19 13. 

Mr. Oberholtzer was elected to membership in the 
Pennsylvania-German Society October^^^^^2 1903, ..„ 

G. T. E. 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Members. 51 

Thomas W. Saeger. 

The name Saeger, spelled also Sager and Seger, is found 
in old records of Germany and Switzerland as far back 
as 1388, when Conrad Sager of Zug was killed by Aus- 
trians. In 1402 Burki Sager was a councillor in Bern and 
i" ^SS2) John Sager was Governor of Arberg. 

John Nicholas Saeger, born in Reichenbach, Bavaria, 
in 1694, became the ancestor of the greater part of the 
family in this country. With his wife, Anna Barbara, 
born in 1705, and their seven children he sailed from Rot- 
terdam, Holland, in the ship Richmond and Elizabeth and 
arrived in Philadelphia on September 28, 1733. He 
settled upon a tract of 250 acres along the Coplay Creek 
in Whitehall Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, 
which he secured by a warrant dated March 28, 1737. 
The plant of the Lehigh Portland Cement Co. is now 
located on this land. This land he farmed until his death, 
when, by will dated October 22, 1753, and probated Feb- 
ruary 5, 1762, it became the property of his two oldest 
sons. He was a Lutheran in faith and worshipped at the 
Jordan Lutheran and at the Egypt churches. He died 
in January, 1762, survived by ten of his thirteen children. 

Jacob Saeger was born October 29, 1774, and was a 
farmer on a part of the old Saeger tract in Whitehall 
Township. In 1 8 15 he removed la -Allentown, PennsyI-__ 
vania, where, with his brother Daniel, he erected a grist- 
mill and engaged in mercantile enterprises. He married 
Margaret, daughter of Martin Mickley, with whom he 

52 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

had eight children : Sarah, Catharine, Charles, Ann, Wil- 
liam, Abigail, Mary and Rebecca. Abigail married Chris- 
tian Pretz and Rebecca married Henry Weinsheimer, both 
of which gentlemen became prominent in the Lutheran 
Church and the mercantile life of Allentown, Pennsylvania. 

Wilham Saeger was born September 4, 1806, and later 
in life became an extensive dealer in grain, a manufacturer 
of lumber and proprietor of grist-mills. From 1862 to 
1883 he served as president of the Allentown National 
Bank. In 1833 he married Hannah, daughter of Daniel 
Gangewere (b. November 12, 1809 — d. June 23, 1887), 
with whom he had three sons: Alfred G., Jacob H., and 
Thomas W. William Saeger died March 10, 1893. 

Thomas W. Saeger, the subject of this sketch, was born 
in Allentown, Pa., November 30, 1843. H!e received his 
earlier education in the public schools of his native city and 
the Allentown Academy, and was graduated in 1863, from 
Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, Pa., where he heard 
President Lincoln deliver the speech that has since become 
a classic in English literature. Upon graduation he ac- 
cepted a position in the Allentown Rolling Mills, but later 
went to Duluth, Minn., where for several years he had 
charge of a grain elevator. Upon his return to Allen- 
town for a number of years he engaged in the milling 

On January 26, 1875, he married Florence Troxell of 
Allentown, Pa. He died November 19, 19 13. Mr. 
Saeger had travelled extensively in Europe, Egypt and the 
Holy Land and was a member of St. John's Lutheran 
Church of Allentown, the Livingston Club, the Lehigh 
Country Club, the Lehigh County Historical Society, the 
Pennsylvania-German Society and the Sigma Chi Fra- 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Members. 53 

Thomas W. Saeger was a Christian gentleman, cul- 
tured and refined, fond of literature, art and music. As 
a business man, he was keen and energetic, the very soul 
of honor; as a citizen, he was interested in all that made 
for the progress and the uplift of the community. He 
was, moreover, a man of deeply religious nature, well 
acquainted with the doctrines of the Lutheran Church, 
which he several times represented at the meetings of the 
Minlsterium of Pennsylvania and the General Council of 
North America. In politics he was a Republican, but re- 
served the right to think for himself. For many years he 
was a very useful and enthusiastic member of the board of 
trustees of Muhlenberg College. 

Mr. Saeger was elected to membership in the Pennsyl- 
vania-German Society January 15, 1897. 

G. T. E. 

54 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Christian Edgar Titzel. 

The ancestors of Christian Edgar Titzel came from 
Reiken or Recken in Germany and landed in Philadelphia 
in 1751. 

John Jonas Rupp, born November 3, 1729, died May 
21, 1 80 1, had a son Martin Rupp, born September 15, 
1769, died July 18, 1843, whose daughter Mary Rupp, 
born May 10, 18 10, died October i, 1882, married a 
Titzel, and became the mother of John Martin Titzel, 
born March 19, 1832, died June 16, 1905, who in turn 
became the father of the subject of this sketch. 

Christian Edgar Titzel was born at Irwin Station, 
Westmoreland County, Pa., May 4, 1875. He was man- 
ager of the Lancaster County Railway and Light Com- 
pany and was a prominent member of the First Reformed 
Church of Lancaster, Pa., as well as a highly esteemed 
citizen of the community. At the time of his death he was 
a trustee of the First Reformed Church. 

He died of cerebral hemorrhage at the early age of 37 
years, on March 30, 19 13. 

Mr. Titzel was chosen a member of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society November 5, 1908. 

G. T. E. 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Members. 55 

William Weis, 

The ancestor of William Weis came from Baden, Ger- 
many, in 1852. His grandfather on the paternal side, 
Johann Weis, born April 18, 1794, died June 16, 1876, 
was Burgomaster at Altsimonswald, Amt Waldkirch, 
Baden, Germany, for forty years. Burgomaster Weis 
had a son named Andrew, born September 7, 1829, died 
May 2, 1882, who was the father of the subject of this 
brief sketch. The mother of William Weis was PauHne 
Buehrer, born January 20, 1835, a daughter of Francis 
Xavier Buehrer, who was born in 1794, and, having been 
a Revolutionist in Germany, came to America in 1848 at 
the time that Franz Sigel and others were obliged to leave. 

William Weis was born at Reading, Pa., on April 17, 
1857, later became an apothecary in New York City, 
where he resided at No. 213 West 34th Street. He died 
April I, 1912. 

He had been elected to associate membership in the 
Pennsylvania-German Society October 20, 1899. 

G. T. E. 




H TRarrative an5 Critical Ibistors 






publication Committee. 




XTbe 2)iatium 


/Ifta^istec S^obannes IRelpius 



Part XXVII of a Narrative and Critical History 


The Pennsylvania-German Society 


Copyrighted 1917 


ipennsslraniaeCetman Soctets. 





Magister Johannes Kelpius, the 
leader of the band of Ger- 
man Pietists who came to 
these shores in the year of 
grace 1694, and settled on 
the banks of the WIssahickon, 
will always remain one of the 
most picturesque characters 
of our early Pennsylvania- 
German history; the more so 
on account of a certain air of 
mystery and romance which 
has thus far enshrouded his personality.^ 

Kelpius and his company of German Pietists located 

1 For a full account of Kelpius, see " The German Pietists of Provincial 
Pennsylvania," Philadelphia, 1895, pp. 219-250. 


6 The Pennsylvania'German Society. 

themselves in what was then unbroken wilderness upon the 
hills overlooking the Wissahlckon Creek, a small stream 
which winds Its way through rocky forest dells and valleys 
until it mingles its crystal waters with the Schuylkill River. 
Changing the scene to the present day, the wilderness 
where Kelpius and his followers located in the last decade 
of the seventeenth century, and erected their tabernacle, is 
now a built-up part of the city of Philadelphia, known as 
the twenty-first ward, while the Wissahlckon with its 
romantic dells, valleys and rugged hills is now a part of 
Philadelphia's great natural pleasure ground, known far 
and wide as Fairmount Park. ~ 

Unfortunately Kelpius, in his modesty, left but little 
written record of the great work performed by him during 
the fourteen long years that he lived on the banks of the 
romantic Wissahlckon. How earnestly he sought to im- 
prove the morals and spiritual condition of the rude and 
heterogeneous population that was then scattered through 
eastern Pennsylvania, is shown by the many traditions and 
legends that have survived for two centuries. 

By reason of his scholarly attainments, devout life, inde- 
pendent bearing, and, it may be said, broad humanity, 
together with his repeated refusals of worldly honors and 
civil power, that were at various times thrust upon him, the 
maglster on the Wissahlckon stands out In bold relief as a 
prominent example of piety and disinterestedness. 

There can be but little doubt that this devout scholar, 
who thus voluntarily banished himself from the fatherland 
home and friends had many difficulties to contend with, 
both within and without the community, and that his posi- 
tion at the head of such a fraternity was anything but a 
sinecure. There were conflicting interests to equalize and, 

The Journal of Kelpius. 

Cf the 

at the twte 

^ Mr cSi^^z'"^^ 

Joi jKii/fLiter 

yPltcA.'^tf ^ 9 JO 


ny me /o 

Wi^ tkat If /tune tReuiy /hci/!/f(e ti 

'J^^^Jh^ mat If mne trnf/iy/ha^fc 
nun c/ fA/y^f,^/s 

^^^ tfi A/ner/cu Jyay 

English Title Page to Kelpius' Ms. Hymn Book. 

8 The Pennsylvania-German Society, 

upon more than one occasion, stubborn minds to combat. 
When internal dissensions threatened the fraternity it was 
always left to Kelpius to use the olive branch. 

So far as known to the present writer, but two manu- 
script volumes of Magister Kelpius have come down to us; 


'-£■- /'/ • 

ffiffy- /} r^.-f^s'" ^-v^. 

Fac-Simile of Title Page of the Kelpius Journal. 

one a volume of hymns and muslc,^ the other, which is the 
subject of this paper, is his journal or diarium in Latin 
with its daily entries during the voyage from London to 
Pennsylvania. This commences on the first day of Jan- 
uary, 1694, and ends on June 24, the passage having taken 
ten weeks, the actual voyage starting on the seventh day 
of February. He divides his entries into six periods and 

^ Ibid., pp. 234-243. 

The Journal of Kelpiiis. 9 

three weeks, which covers seventeen pages of the journal; 
after the following introduction, which is apparently a quo- 
tation from Seneca, is headed: 

CXtrii na^ru. rumv finni d tiote/t . Xhn^ah'ik. rn^%St^, 
dicltruY Jed wCtt^ yri eyij a^r*tC4^nA. terrain trCnvO , n tnt^m 

(A ubi CUfi^ Ofru. cJt . Ji tfymt jQjyKnc^ /^j^^^/1''^' **^'^- 
fi ftvdhU, tKuicJ:\ ^ ^ 

Fac-Simile of Introduction. 

" Seneca De Refor." 

" I cannot go beyond my country: it is the one of all ; no one can 
be banished outside of this. My country is not forbidden to me, 
but only a locality. Into whatever land I come, I come into my 
own: none is exile, but only another country. My country is 
wherever it is well ; for if one is wise he is a traveller ; if foolish an 
exile. The great principle of virtue is, as he said, a mind gradually 
-trained first to barter visible and transitory things, that it may 
afterwards be able to give them up. He is delicate to whom his 
country is sweet ; but he is strong to whom every single thing is his 
country; indeed he is perfect to whom the world is exile." 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The next leaf may be called a title, and sets forth that 
the following are ''Literal copies of letters to friends in 
and out of Pennsylvania, sent from the wilderness by 
Johanno Kelpio, Transylvania, 1 694-1 703, 4, 5, 6, 7." 

The Good Ship " Sara Maria," Capt. Tanner, Master. 
{Sara Mariabonae Spei. Kelpius.) 

3. N. 31. 


(In the Name of Jesus) 
A. D. 1694. 

y J^k N the 7th of Jan., I, convinced by God, resolved upon 
M *m y^ going to America, my companions being: Henry 
■ I I Bernard Coster,^^ Daniel Falkner,^^ Daniel Lutke, 
M I "y John Seelig, Ludwig Bidermann,^^ as well as about 
^^ L^ 40 Other companions, some of whom were numbered 
(mustered), and others convicted by God, in Ger- 
many, had as yet in the preceding year, resolved upon that voyage. 
February On Feb. 7th I engaged for them the ship, " sarah maria," of 
good hope, Captain John Tanner, an Englishman, the vessel being 
hired at seven (7) English £, of Silver, which I paid out on board 

^1 Henrich Bernhard Koster (Coster-Kuster). For full account of this 
early pioneer and Evangelist cf. " German Pietists in Provincial Pennsyl- 
vania," pp. 251-298, 

1- Daniel Falckner. Ibid., pp. 299-3341. 

13 Ludwig Christian Biederman was the first member of the community 
to break his voluntary resolution of celibacy. Almost immediately upon his 
arrival in Gerraantown he married Maria Margaretha, the daughter of 
the widow of Rev. Johann Jacob Zimmermann. Cf. " German Pietists," 
pp. 460-472. They had been fellow passengers across the ocean. 



The Pennsylvania-German Society. 


"X/^inu, fnnn^u ^^t^i *^ ^M^y '^::S^^^ 


mvUt-eM^m e^0 ^&/fs?nei TXyvru^rn 

4-9**. /?i^ ieitium -t^ J- i. a«te^ie^it/9-' oM^, t^,- ^^"■sshMa ■ 

^ n»«r*^ 

j^*^ faTa(%'i /^A'r. e-'^^'t^ i^<JtpL^^ . r^t^ia^ £uftf^^i,-U' 

Facsimile of First Page of Diarium of Magister Johannes Kelpius. 

The Journal of Kelpius. 13 

the ship on the 14th of this month, having embarked on the 13th, 
but the rest had embarked on the 12th. J^ H-8 

This first day was passed tranquilly on the Thames river, by our 
people, by me (in this manner) for the greatest part. At night- 
fall a dispute arose concerning the arrangement of the beds, which 
(dispute) kindled the zeal in P. G. (puellis, Germanis — German 
girls?), so that disappointed in the pacific union of heart, I deemed 
my zeal for obtaining a single bed the heaven of Christ, (zelum 
and coelum, being here a je de mots). The lewdness might have 
increased (?) until Maria (solitaria, a spinster, lone woman) 
brought in an Ethiopian virgin, who would previously inform her- 
self concerning the purity of an European maiden, before she con- 
sented to marriage. But George was afflicted with a most severe 

illness, the condition forbids me here, enough, wherefore in this 
manner he slept alone. 

The second day 4. 15th Feb. was lucky for us (secunda and 
secunde — 2nd & lucky, another je de mots). But the third was j^^ 
destined fatal. My apprehensive mind presaged evils with a fortu- 16. 9 
nate outcome. Falkner said the same of himself. We were visited 
first by the impress-gang of the king. Then we were driven towards 
sand-banks^'* by a contrary and turbulent wind ; wishing to escape 
these, we sought safety in our anchor, whereby we should have 
perished if not Divine providence had made it, that the great 
weight of the metal, which, under our ship, would have perforated 
the same had not the anchor been broken itself. Our anchor being 
lost in this manner, we were at length borne upon the sand-banks 
by the whirl. All, saving a few, feared the end was at hand. 
The Captain having fired off four cannon, called those who were 
near to the rescue, but took pity on none of us. We furled the 
sails and committed the vessel to the turbulent billows, whilst 
the sailors were despairing. I had hold (of) the turtle-dove, that 
is not to be deserted, about the middle (waist) from the begin- 

(Pagf 2 ot 9^0.) 

ning (Feb. 16) of the storm, a divine witness, when already I saw 

Improbably one of the shoals known as the Goodwin Sands. 


14 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

our pilot despairing in the midst of our distress, when I was 
admonished, likewise, that by bearing witness concerning the most 
certain aid of God, I should raise his faith and hope, but being 
agitated myself, I kept my thoughts for myself. I was admonished 
a second time, but seeing him intent on other matters and turned 
away from me, I held my peace in turn. All were despairing 
and invoked the name of Jesus, as if about to journey into another 
life. Then being admonished (divinely) for the third time, I 
said to the pilot: "Have faith in God, who certainly will save 
us." The pilot rejoiced, for he was not so ignorant of divine 
matters. He pressed my hands and said : " God alone can help me 
everywhere, on Him shall I hope." Said, done (No sooner had 
he said these words than they were fulfilled). The storm began to 
drive the ship away from the sand-banks into deep water, where 
casting anchor, we praised God in safety. Meanwhile Coster, with 
the rest, had been pouring forth strong supplication to God (and 
indeed, about that time, when I began to collect my thoughts) as 
soon as I was admonished for the 3rd time, inwardly, and addressed 
the pilot, he had changed his entreaty to a prayer of thanksgiving, 
being sure his wish had been granted, though not knowing what 
just now was being done by us (with us). 

I went below, rejoicing in our deliverance, to announce the 
glad tidings. I told them what had been done by me just a little 
while ago, and they, in turn, related their experience; therefore 
I no longer wondered at the divine virtue in me while I prayed, 
(their prayers had so powerfully aided me). I went up on deck 
and explained the matter more fully to the pilot, who began to 
praise the Lord with folded hands, especially when I added, that 
still more dangers were imminent {threatening), but that I was 
fully convinced of the final aid of God. Going below for the 2nd 
time, I also disclosed this matter to my brethren, when Falkner, 
filled with the spirit. of God, poured forth fervent thanksgiving: 
Praised be the name of the Lord for ever! Amen!. Hallelujah! 

The Journal of Kelphis. 15 

(^m 3 of si?s.) ^.,„^^ 

The fourth day the Sabbath was, indeed, a Sabbath for us, i?- h 
who, in this quietude, persevered in the praises of God, our 18. © 

The fifth day, which was of the sun (lis-solis?) the infant son 
of Henry Lorentz, died, aged 6 months, his remains were cast into 
the sea (or, "he fell into the sea"). We were again visited by 
the royal impress gang, who would have borne oS as their booty 
three of the best attendants of our pilot (captain) under pretense 
of the Swedish nation (for Swedes they were) had not divine favor 
won over unto us the hearts of the soldiers; for Coster had pre- 
viously poured forth a most fervent prayer. By the aforesaid provi- 
dence, those impressors carried off from a neighboring vessel, that 
was going to sail to America with us, three Belgian sailors. 
Thereafter we were happily borne by a gentle breeze from out of 
that dangerous place to one more secure, and there, having cast 
anchor, we remained through the night. 

On the 6th day, we vainly sought for our lost anchor, but, a 
great calm arising, we were obliged to rest, making up for the 
delay by reading the Bible and dissertations on sacred subjects. At 
night we were in turn visited by the impress-gang, who carried off 
one of our younger servants, yet we, in turn, acquired a former 
servant and sailor of the king's. 

On the 7th day, we were borne by a favorable wind over (past) 
rocky and sandy ledges and on the right, leaving behind for ever 
the shore of England. About even-tide there approached to us 
some men-of-war with 22 other vessels, bearing and accompanying 
Prince Ludwig of Baden from England to Holland. At night, 
casting anchor beyond the rocks, we slept securely and soundly 
(on either ear). 

The 8th day (i. e. the 7th of our sailing), brought Sabbath 
and rest, for, happily, a south-wind blowing, we were borne to a 
place called " Downs " by the English, where the rest of the ships 
that were going to sail to America with us, were assembled. [^ 

19. 3 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 


(l^affe 4 of Q^gi.) 

(Period Second) 

February At that port (Downs) ^^ we awaited for about 2 weeks for a favor- 
able wind, and the royal mandate, shortening the long, weary hours 
by dissertations on sacred subjects and by study of the Bible. 
Meanwhile we sent letters to London and to Germany to Tob. 
Ad. Lauterbach^^ (Feb. 27th) also to others from whom we re- 
ceived answers full of most auspicious omens.^'^ The other part (of 
our company) which had been excluded, at London, on account 
of their depraved manners, from us and our spiritual intercourse, 
wasting their time in brawls and fights, were a scandal even to the 
lower (inferior) sailors, who wondered that the young women 

were beaten by the men. But even the triumvirate itself (for 3 

families had been excluded) was split up into factions, and had not 
one yielded to another, the matter might have come from words to 
blows, as I have said was done at the former fight. 
March On March 3rd our Captain received another anchor, like unto 
the one that was lost, though inferior to the latter, yet most 
acceptable unto us. Scarcely had we received this anchor when we 
were again visited by a furious storm, and what increased the 
danger, the two anchors, which we had cast, became interlocked 
and could hardly be adjusted (set aright) though it took a long 
time. Loosed, we were, meanwhile being borne nearer and nearer 
to the rocky and sandy ledges. We saw the cables sustaining the 
anchor of a ship not far off being torn asunder. We heard the 
boom of cannon of vessels in despair; at the same time we saw 
broken spars floating here and there. But what our fate would 
have been, I could not (was not allowed to) inquire, nevertheless 
we were extricated out of this danger, we were freed. 

^5 "The Downs," a spacious roadstead in the English Channel aflFording 
an excellent anchorage. It is between the shore and the Goodwin Sands 
and is much used by the British Navy. 

1^ Tob. Ad. Lauterbach, one of the leaders of the Philadelphiac Com- 

'^'^ This was during the universal war then waged against Louis XIV of 
France, 16819^1697. In American history it is known as "King William's 

The Journal of Kelpius. . 17 • 

Oagf 5 Ot 9$0,) 

On the following day I received a letter from Samuel Walden- 
field, residing in the " Lamp " on Frenchurch St., London, in March 
which letter some money was assigned to me (a draft), sent from Divine 
Holland by a devout (Lat. divina) virgin, Catharine Beerens, Virgin 
van Boswig, said money to be received of Samuel Standeriwk, at 
Deal,'-® who received me and my companion Seelig, very civilly, on 
the following day, and by way of conversation, he manifested great 
interest (was wonderfully delighted) in the affairs of the Pietists 
of Grermany, and desired that we should often come to see him ; 
but our unexpected departure on March 8th, frustrated our in- 
tention. For the man-of-war accompanying us, received orders 8 
from the King to set sail. Therefore, unfurling our sails, about ^ 
sunset, we were borne along by the east wind with 19 accompany- 
ing vessels, whereof 3 were men-of-war. 

Next day our Captain received instructions, from the admiral of 
the war-vessels, concerning his course of action on the voyage, by 9- 9 
day and by night, in all events, in calm or storm, in peace or war. 
They read as follows: — 

"Instructions for your (the) Boat or keeping Company with 
" their Majesty's Ship ye " Sandados Prize," under my Com- 
" mand : — 

" If I weigh in ye day I will hauld from my foartop sail shrouds 
" and fire a Gunn. If in ye night I will putt a Light in ye main 
" topmast shrouds and fire a Gunn, which Light you are to 
" answer. If I weigh in fog I will fire 3 guns distinctly one after 
" another. 

" If I anchor in 5^6 night or in a fogg I will fire 2 Guns a small 
" distance of time one from ye other and putt aboard a Light 
" more than my constant Lights which Light you are to answer." 

(Pap 6 ot ^0,) 

" If i lye by or try in the Night, i will fire five Guns, and March 

"keep a Light abroad more than my constant light in the Main- '" 

" Schrouds, and if through extremity of Weather we are forced to 

18 Deal, a seaport and market town in Kent, England. It has no harbor. 

1 8 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

" lye a HoU or under a Mizon, i will fire three Guns, and put 
" abroad two Lights of equal height more than my constant Light, 
" and if i make sail in the Night after blowing Weather, or after 
" lying by, or for any other reason, i will make the same sign as 
" for weighing in the Night, wich Light you are to answer. 

" In case of separation if we meet by day, the weathermost ship 
"schall lower his Fore-Top-Sail, and those the Levard schall an- 
" swer by Lowering their Main-Top-Sail. 

" He that apprehends any danger in the Night schall fire Guns 
" and put abroad Three Lights of equal height, and bear away, or 
" Tack from it ; but if it schould happen to be strange ships, then 
" make false fires and endeavour to to speack with my (me) ; and 
" to better to Ruon each other in the night, he that hails schall 
" ask what schip is that, and he that is heilet schall answer Adven- 
" ture, than he that hailet first schall reply Rupert. 

(Page 7 ct Sl^0,) 

" If i have a desire to speak with you, i will hoist a Jack-Flag 
' in my Mizon-Top-Mast-Schrouds, and make a Weft with my 
' ensign. 

" If you have a desire to speak with my, you schall hoist your 
' Ensign in your Pain-Top-Mast-Schrouds. 

" If in the night you chance to spring a Leak, keep firing of 
' Guns, and showing of Lights." 

" Dated on Board their Will Allen. 

' Majesty's Ship " Sandados Prize " 
' March ye 9, 169^. 
On the third day we were borne by a favorable wind, leaving, 
10 at about noon, the Isle of Wight on the right. On the 4th day, 
^ which was a Sunday, with bright sunshine, a most gentle, yet very 
O favorable breeze blowing, we entered the harbor of Plymouth (than 
which we could have scarcely wished a better) about five o'clock 
jn the evening, and lo! the Belgian war-ships, ceding^ .as it. were, 
their station unto us, left the port. We, entering port, occupied 
their former place, & now safely moored from billows and storms, 
we had, moreover, to the west, our men-of-war, & a citadel, con- 

The Journal of Kelpius. 

y.,/:v ^^'- ->^ t>W.72i.^ft:<>^ 



> loiU#*KW? i^:??'^"''"*^-' vy^y"'^^ "(ft^^a "'^*L/ n.U'~, 


-t^ <^»M ^i> rj <^ «'«• ; J? '^ - -T^"'* '■' •« ^ *te**<fi^ 

*i^ vt^ 


T«?_ C^'i^fr «^». ^« 

Fac-Simile of Page Containing the Orders of Capt. Allen. 

20 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

taming as many guns (cannon) as there are days in the year, 
namely 365. 

(Page 8 of fit^sf.) 


At this place we tarried for five weeks, vainly expecting the 
royal convoys. Meanwhile we became familiar with sundry citizens 
of Plymouth. The rest of our time was spent in sacred exercises 
& meditation. I, for my part, received some letters from Cleves 
& Niiremberg, wherefore I was not so much in a quandary con- 
cerning the manner of our voyage, but I answered all objections 
satisfactorily, directing moreover other letters to Lauterbach, Mons 
April de Wateville, Moerkamp & others, chiefly at London. 
— But when, on April 15th, Danish, Swedish & Spanish floats 

landed, we bargained with these for their convoy,^^ & gave up wait- 
ing for the royal vessels, & on the i8th, with a favorable south 
18.8 wind, the sea being clear, we ventured on our voyage, at about 10 
+ a.m. But, lo! when we had scarcely left port, we were driven 
about by a contrary breeze, moreover, we descried three stately 
ships, which we first took to be French men-of-war, but found out 
afterwards they were Portuguese. During the night a heavy fog 
arose, so that we were borne along, as it were, blind-folded & lost 
the English coast, to which, resplendent in the evening sun, we had 
bidden farewell, directing our course westward with a favoring 
north-wind, & with 38 vessels accompanying, being mostly Spanish, 
these first discoverers but now hated settlers of the new world, 
conveying us, seemingly, towards a better hope. 

On this day, on account of the opposition of O ^ 8 20. 5 the 
superstitious crew expected a huge tempest, but an altogether in- 
different sky permitted a prosperous course under Lat. 49° 33'. At 
the same time also on the following days 5 ^ O £3' so that that 
formidable opposition neither from before nor behind exercised 
(?) their powers. 

19 In this war, under the league of Augsburg, almost the whole of Europe 
was arrayed against France. 

The Journal of Kelphis. 21 

On this day the south wind blew rather violently. Hourly we April 
traversed 5 English miles, but our convoys were scattered all day 23. ^ 
long & could hardly be kept together by their highest officers. At 
mid-day the wind veered from south to west, scarcely giving us 
time for furling sail, & awaiting, as yet, the dispersed vessels, our 
main-mast sail alone expanded, we ploughed leisurely, the hostile 
sea. So the most favorable aspect of the constellations had caused 
one of the worst storms. 

Hereafter, on the 24th, under Lat. 48° 9', our ships were 24. 9 
gathered together. On the 25th, under Lat. 47° 49', with a favor- ^ g 
able east-wind, we bade farewell, in the evening, to our Spanish + 
convoys, rewarding them also. The name of their highest officer 
was Nicholas De Rudder. 


Leaving, therefore, the Spanish vessels 25-behind, we were May 
borne from Lat. 47° 3' to Lat. 43° 58', being favoured by a most 
delightful east-wind throughout the week. In longitude we trav- 
ersed more than 300 leagues (1200 geog. mi.), so prosperous was 
the 2nd week of our voyage. But on the ist day of the 3rd week, 2.8 
which was the 2nd of May, there blew an ugly west-wind, which + 
sorely vexed us on the following night. 

(Page 10 ot 9^0,) 

3. An auspicious day. A north-wind drove us from our place. . -y 
4. In consequence of the wind changing to west, we were tossed ^ay 
about all night, being hurried along on the tempestuous gale. At . o 
the 3rd night-watch it veered towards the north. 5. Weathering 4.5. 
fierce storms, we finally proceeded with a favorable north-wind. 6. 0. 
6. Under Lat. 49° 55', with west-wind, we sailed southward, until, 

iat last, on the 7th, we passed through an unfavorable night. Dur- 7. T^ 

ing the day, we encountered several storms, losing our fore-masts, 
that of the prow & 2 of the middle (the twin masts). Moreover, 
we were unable to ascertain our latitude, neither moon, sun, nor 

22 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

stars appearing; but a little before evening devotions, a north-wind 
g $ cheered the sailors. 8. Under Lat. 41° 22', we sailed along 
happily, restoring, in part, our lost masts. 


9-8 Our stormy week being at an end, we entered upon a warlike 
one. Scarcely had we arisen after a turbulent night, when squalls 

10- ^ prevented our refitting the masts. Early on the loth, we beheld 
from afar, three vessels. Presently they advanced toward us. Some 
conjectured they were English ships homeward bound from Ameri- 
can shores. But when, after hoisting our colors, we perceived, 
they did not reply, but kept on approaching nearer and nearer, we 

thought, they were bent on an engagement. In this we erred not. 

For they were French, & their largest vessel carried 22 cannon, the 
2nd 10, & the smallest 6 cannon, & since they sailed with a favor- 
May able wind, they challenged us to battle. We, having made prepara- 
tions for 3^ an hour, kept on the defensive only, & that so bravely, 

(j9ag:t ll of 9^^,) 

that the largest vessel took to flight. Our companion vessel the 
" Providence," seeing this, came up to us, already victors, to the 
pursuit of the French vessels, which, now, all fled with every sail 
expanded. And because the " Providence " was of superior speed, 
she alone coped with the fleeing vessels, with such eagerness, as 
though we had gained a greater victory. Sometimes, however, 
whilst being greatly troubled by her three adversaries, she would 
wait for us to come up, until, at last, we obtained possession of the 
smallest ship, which carried six cannon. With this we were con- 
tented, although we could have captured the rest, yet, deeming that 
superfluous, we began to sing a song of triumph (paean). 

Strange to say, in this battle of four hours' duration, we were 
struck by three cannon-balls only, & that without any one's being 

hurt,. & with but little damage to our vessel. On board the vessel 

we captured, one man had been wounded in his foot, another had 
his head torn off, & the remaining ships, what losses had they not 
sustained? On this and on the following day, we, marvelling at 

The Journal of Kelpius. 23 

divine Providence, worshipped & praised the name of God. But ". ^ 
marry, the vicissitudes of human affairs ! Again two vessels loomed 
up, are they friends or foes? We vi^ere in a quandary. We also 
recollected, that two French war-ships were still at large, & we 
had heard our prisoners remark, that one of those carried 80 can- 
non, & the other was an armored one. Hence we again prepared 
ourselves for another encounter. They however, altered their May 

(Page 12 ot 9^gf.) 

course & thus, what seemed to be our ruin, came happily off, & we, 
our fears being somewhat allayed, rested our weary limbs. 

Occasionally, we were amused by the gambols of the monsters 
of the deep, some having the form of calves, others that of horses, 
and still others that of whales. Especially at night they presented 
a fine spectacle, when vying, as it were, in speed with our vessel, 
they seemed just as moving through a sea of fire, (Phosphores- 
cence). But, lo! -/l. Late in the morning another ship hove in 12. ij. 
sight, just as if sLx navigators had met, first three to two, then two 

to three ( for we were sailing already with our booty) , lastly, 

one being ofEered to our view. Concerning this last vessel, our 
minds were uneasy but for short space, since no sooner had she 
appeared, than she withdrew. The French vessels returning from 
Martinique had thus far troubled us enough. 

Sunday, bright sun-shine, under Lat. 39° 48', laying care aside, , <^ j^ 
we were cheered by a favorable east-wind; shortly before, it had 
been from the north. Then with heavy sea-weed ( ?), we ploughed 
the main. On the 15th, the wind veering to south, we slacked 
our course, meanwhile the sailors looked with covetous eyes at our 
French prey, grumbling at our captain, who kept appeasing his 
hunger for sugar, & quenching his thirst for cider (with which 
merchandise the ship was fraught), until he promised that all 
-should be partakers, just as himself, of the unjust mammon, as 
soon as the latter should have been made of private right from (by) 
the lawful judges of these matters (pilfered from them). 


24 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 


May The fifth week of the warfare, the i6th day began under Lat. 
i6. 17. 39° 21', the 17th, morn advanced, presented a ship returning from 
8. 11 • Antego, though first preparing for battle with the same, yet we 
+ spent the remainder of the day most amicably, & entrusted letters 
for London with the same, determining (settling) also the contro- 
versy (dispute) concerning our French booty, from which we had 
18. 9 taken two cannon. On the i8th, east wind shortly before mid- 
night winged our flight, but scarcely four sails were unfurled on 
account of the lazy-tardy bulk of our French prey. We tarried, 
therefore, for the latter, & on the 19th, tired of waiting, we bade 
farewell to the " Providence," leaving her in charge of the booty, 
& so we went (proceeded) before alone, leaving all the ships be- 

20. o hind, that had set out with us from England. But on the 20th, 

the wind being contrary and exceedingly strong, which hardly 

21. ^ moderated on the 21st & 22nd. At this juncture, I recalled a 
22. $ He Prophet, X who prophesied for me x while yet in London, that 

was Feter Cherubim would be the companion of our way & our protectors in 

danger, & that this would be a sign that we should accept of Divine 

assistance, to wit, that although having left behind all other vessels, 

yet we alone should precede with contrary wind, & should happily 

23- draw (come) ashore in America, i. e. 23. The sixth week, looking 

8 at our companions, you would say, they are snugly at Philadelphia, 

~'~ they were borne in love. North-wind also seemed to favor, but, as 

if heaven had decreed otherwise, a west-wind visited us with storms, 

when already in Lat. 37°, we were approaching Virginia, which we 

^*y sought. Therefore on the 25th, we were driven northward to Lat. 

24. 39°, whilst the sailors were becoming apprehensive, for a huge 

(^agj 14 0f fiJ^^O 

4- 5 vessel seemed to sail by, (Flying Dutchman?). But on the 26th, 
, ^ late in the morning, we came, very unexpectedly, up to seven ships... 

These were returning from Virginia to England. To our great 

dismay we learned from them, that we were as yet 250 leagues dis- 
o tant from land most agreeably to our reckoning. We entrusted 

The Journal of Kelphis. 25 f 

unto them letters to London, & bade farewell & directed our course 29. 
from Circins (?) to Notolybinn (?). Which line, also, we fol- 28. ^ 
lowed on the 27th, the blessed day of Pentecost (Whit-Sunday) & 29. S 
on the 28th & 2gth. The seventh week was the most steadfast in 3°- 8 j 
inconstancy, for now we were borne south, now north. But on the + 
31st, the wind turned from Circins (?) to north, presently to 3'- % 
Caecins, (north-east) then to east to Libanotus, and lastly, to south- \ 

west. June ist, just as yesterday, we experienced variable wind, June \ 
but yesterday it was clear, to-day, however, we had rain-storms ^- 9 
(showers), & about eventide we were cherished (comforted) by a 
huge parasite fish (Shirk), at the same time a strong north-east 
wind steadily kept advancing us about two leagues per hour 
throughout the entire night. The same north-east wind, though 2. \ 
less constant, favored us. During the morning hours, a dolphin of 
medium size was caught in our (unmoved) anchor. He was yellow June 
as gold, spotted with red. 

(Page 15 of 9^^.) 

(The dolphins must have been wedged between anchor & poop!) 
(When (while) from the opposite, our parasite of yesterday, with June 
huge bulk, & seven foot length tickled neither our eyes so much, nor 
our taste yet the dolphin filled out both, though not confirming 
credibility (stapability) the fable of the ancients concerning the love 
of music, unless, perchance, you should say our English crew erred 
in the name. 3. To-day an uninterrupted & brisk north-east wind 
drove us directly away from a ship we should otherwise have met. 3. 
WTiether the latter were friend or foe, we could not tell. Neverthe- 
less they seemed to entertain some fear & sailed back, whence they 
had come. 4. Under lat. 38° lo' we had favorable " north-east, 
soon after changing to east, then to south-east under lat. 36° 53', 4. J 
where with full sail, we outstripped the birds, so that on the follow- 
ing 5th & 6th, on the completion of our seventh week, we augured, 
we should see dry land ; nor should we have been deceived in our 5. ^...- 
augury, had not the wind changed from south to south-west. ^" f 

4. 7. & 8. &: 9. The same south-west wind continuing, we were 7. 8. 9. 
driven north-east-ward, & disappointed in our hope of descrying 


II. "|l 

26 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

land 10. O But yet, on the 50th day after our departure from 
,0 o England, we touched the bottom of the sea at only 38 threads 
( fathoms ?38X6 = — 228 feet) . 

But lo ! for four hours we were tossed about by a double storm 
& wind until, 

(^ast 16 of 9^^.) 

at last, north-east wind, so often longed for, favored us, which, 
nevertheless, on the nth, turned to north, so that, although al- 
'''■ ^ most entering port, yet we could not accomplish this end. 12. 
From afar we descried three vessels, & from about 85^ a.m. to 12 
noon, we beheld a huge eclipse of the sun under lat. 36° 45'- 
And lo! the eclipse over, we entered by a most blessed influence^ 
(considering externalities) the bay of Virginia (Chesapeake) to- 
wards 8 p.m., casting anchor somewhat after midnight. 

Ninth Week 

i '3 Beginning with the new & ninth week, a good south-west blow- 
\ lA ing, we traversed 40 leagues, until, leaving the coast of Virgmia 
& sailing along that of Maryland, we went to the lord-protectors 
IS- 16 royal deputies (procurators region) to inform them of the why & 
wherefore of our coming to the new world. Having tasted of the 
fruits, which grew in great abundance along the shore, we pur- 
sued the remainder of our way. 

The memorable excommunication of Falkner by Coster, ^ that 
of Anna Maria Schuchart, the Prophetess of Erfurt (Erphorti- 
anae) ! 

Tenth Week 

In the tenth week.19. we all went ashore (disembarked), 
(literally "kissed the ground (earth") 5- 22. Went to New 

Castle; 23 © to Philadelphia, & finally 24. 1 to Germantown. 

Then follow copies of the nine missives sent to persons 
at home and abroad, viz. : 

The Journal of Kelpiiis. 27 

1. German letter to Henrich Joh. Deichman^ in London, 

dated September 24, 1697 17-20 

2. To the same May 12, by Jan. van Leveringh* 21-34 

3. Postscript to above by Johann Selig^ 35-40 

4. Missive to Mr. Steven Momfort^ in Long Island, De- 

cember II, 1699, in America Concerning the Pietists 

in Germany {English) 41-47 

5. Letter to Rev. Tobias Erie Biorck,'^ Pastor of the Swed- 

ish Lutheran Church at Christiana {Latin) 48-60 

6. To Maria Elizabeth Gerber^ in Virginia, an answer to 

her letter, in which she requests an expression of my 

opinion concerning the Quakers {German) 61-83 

-7. To Magister Fabritius,^ Prof. Theol. in Helmstad July 

I, 1705 {German) , 84-88 

8. To his " Hertzens " Brother Deichman, July 23, 1705 

{German) 89-91 

9. Of the Threefold Wilderness State viz. : ( i ) The Bar- 

ren, (2) The Fruitfull & (3) the Wilderness of the 

3 Henrich Johann Deichman, leader of the Philadelphiac Movement in 

*Jan. Van. Leveringh, a member of the Levering family who returned 
to Europe. Cf. " German Pietists," p. 338. 

5 Johann Gottfried Selig, one of the leaders of the Kelpius Community. 
For biographical sketch cf. " German Pietists." 

^Stephen Mumford (born 16391; died July, 1701) is accredited with 
being the founder of the Seventh-day Baptist Church in America. Cf. 
" German Pietists," pp. 136 et seq. Also " Seventh Day Baptists in Europe 
and America," by Professor Corlies F. Randolph, Vol. II, Plainfield, N. J. 

"^ Rev. Tobias Eric Biorck, pastor of the Swedish Lutheran Church at 
Christiana (Wilmington, Del.). 

8 Maria Elizabeth Gerber in Virginia. The identity of this person has 
not been solved. 

There are no records known that any Germans were in Virginia at that 
early day, yet some of the early records in the Halle orphanage seem to 
indicate their presence. 

9 Magister Johannes Fabricius, professor in the University of Altdorf, 
tutor of Johannes Kelpius. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Elect of God, anno May 25, 1706, To Hester Pal- 
mer^" in Long Island in Flushing {English) 91-101 

These letters, as will be seen, are somewhat rhapsodical, 
and filled with obscure illusions to mystical subjects and 
scriptural quotations. A vein of true piety, however, per- 
vades every missive, the whole being an evidence of the 
survival of superstition at that late day, strangely mingled 
with the observed facts of science. 

1° Hester Palmer in Flushing, Long Island. Identity not established. 
Evidently a member of Steven Mumford's congregation. 

Bookplate of the London Society for Propagating the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts. 



Copy of a Letter from Pennsylvania to London, to Mr. 
Heinrich Johann Deichman. 

February 24}^, 1697. 
Faithful Fellow Champion Deichman! 

.OUR esteemed favor received with joy, and there re- 
sounds from " The Call to Wisdom," which you en- 
closed, such an echo in our spirit, as though wisdom 
herself had meant us. We behold the harmony of 
divine discipline by virtue of a sympathetic agreement 
of your centre with ours, and although the radiant roads 
from and to the latter, cross each other in an endless manner, yet 
with all this diversity, the aspect of the upper huts of our mother, 
manifold wisdom, becomes more dear and joyous. Therefore we are 
not angry because of your cross and opposition roads, just as you, 
we hope, arenot angry with ours, because, indeed, from the stroke 
of the cross, the bright colors of the sign of peace must be born, 
just as Solomon from David. The radii of our cross are directed 
at present from the centre exteriorly, when, however, the Lord is 
willing to unite these outward-turned extremities of our cross in 
their central point, He alone knows, and to Him alone this is pos- 
sible. Hence it is not my intention to pen with ink of our color, 
the letters Y. L. (Your Love), because your love is sealed in its 
place. We only long for the revelation in and from out the heart 
of the love of God, and the more anxiously we bear, the more 
carefully the Lord hides us from the dragon, that watches so care- 
fully for the birth, in order to devour it. 

30 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Fight thou with us, thou faithful soul, and lead all thy rela- 
tives forth into the same battle, and sufiEer no strange trumpet of a 
prince operating through fame in the air, to separate our united 
phalanx under the banner of the Lion and the Lamb, (we must 
long for in hopeful patience, as later on, the Father at times, 
renders the waiting sweet). 

The Lord once said: We love him rightly, for whom we can 
wait a long time ; he, whom we love but little, from him we soon 
depart. The Lord hath also waited long for us, ere we received 
this desire, in which blissful, hoping waiting, I remain with cordial 
embrace in the love of Jesus 

thine eternally united 

J. Kelpius. 

P. S. Most worthy brother, the longer I write, the more 
ardent my spirit becometh in the desire for the revelation of our 
hope, because all pens or quills, or even bodily cohabitation, though 
these modify the longing somewhat, do but little or naught for the 
cause. How often am I in the spirit more exactly round about you, 
than I am with those with whom I corporeally dwell in Kedar. 
Therefore I kiss the Father's hand that hath led me into this 
desert as into a chamber. For verily! had I remained in London 
with Mecken and Clerk, we should have done harm never to be 
told unto each other, as I now clearly see, as we love each other 
cordially, and they were loth to let me go, hoping in spirit to con- 
tinue the work vigorously. I went with joy into this desert, as 
into a garden of roses, and I knew not at that time, that it was 
the furnace of affliction in which the Lord was about to purify 
and to prove me, and now I see it, since the heat hath somewhat 
passed by, and I praise the Father, our Lord Jesus Christ, that 
He willed such good unto me. But enough hereof! My best 
regards to Mecken & Clerk, if they still survive, as I hope, and 
grow with us in the same hope; it is but for a little while, as I 
hope, and we shall speak unto each other differently, far differently 
than heretofore, and then shall no man take our joy from us, for 
the faithful and true witness will not suffer us to be constantly 
in unrest. 

The Journal of Kelptus. 


I am in no wise displeased with them, that they were offended in 
us and, m a measure, delivered us unto death. We have, indeed 
often been brought near to the gates of death, and the coldness of 
death, which David dreaded so much, is not vet past. Now where 
our loss has been their salvation (as above indicated) how much 
more will our life be their assumption (proslepsis), when the 
l.ord shall awaken us from the dead. We certainly had had 
sufficient cause, to be offended in them; if, however, this being were 
to continue in growth, where would the accretion be, and the love 
that IS founded upon forgiveness from the heart, and forgiveness 
upon the knowledge of one's own faults, and this knowledge is 
founded upon that great humility which we all lacked in spite of 
our great knowledge. But the Lord knoweth how to humble 
the proud, and how to bend that which in us is rigid by means of 
His fatherly cross-blows with which our ways are interwoven To 
Him be praise, honor, power and glory for ever, world without 
end. Amen. 

An Ancient Horoscope Cast by the Mystics on the Wissahickon. 



To THE Same, May I2*^ 1699. through Jan von Lewenigh 


Faithful brother and fellow of the tribulation, of which, at this 
time, all partake that hope in patient and longing waiting for 
^ the glorious appearance of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

HEAR with special joy, how you show in your last let- 
ter, happily delivered together with a package by Mr. 
SchaefEer, your heart unto us as in a mirror, and how 
you permit us to see in what manner you are being 
purified in the furnace of the covenant, even so, that 
you feel, that your experience was not the lot of the 
children of God for many centuries. Just as I have made men- 
tion in my first letter to you, of similar experiences of ours, but 
especially of mine own, concerning such as the Lord from the 
beginning to this hour uniteth more firmly; but, afterwards, for 
upwards of a whole year, my experience is such, that the water 
hath not only often encompassed my soul, as you say of yourself, 
but I have even sunk in the deepest and bottomless slough of 
despond. So you, too, at the beginning of that state, did compose 
a lay of woe, sent to me through Falkner, so that I must con- 
clude, that the entire body of Christ is now suffering on earth, nor 
do I understand this to be an ordinary suffering, but rather such 
as extendeth from Gethsemane to Golgotha; yea, what shall I say, 

it hath not yet come to the , .branch! The worst, the thrust 

of death, is still behind, when I shall atone before no common 
one . . . on the cross, or Jebusite, as Herod, or mystic imagma- 


The Journal of Kelp'ms. 33 

tion and dreams (but I am not speaking) (will reveal the right 
mystic way, which the world did hide) but of a real, where, essen- 
tially, this is done once and for all time, and from out of which 
a necessary transmutation as to body, soul and spirit resulteth. I 
have, indeed, heard and read much of many that have died, risen, 
ascended, yea, descended with a virgin body, and now filling there- 
with their former body in such a manner, that the new covereth 
the old, as hides or pelts cover the hut of Moses, etc., the worthi- 
ness of which I do not impeach; yet sad experience hath hitherto 
taught, that most men, after such advance, have not only not out- 
stripped the others, but some have been made subservient to others, 
and have, in part, become unlike themselves in a deterior altitude. 
The words of Partus (Plato ?) are clear indeed, on which my 
faith is founded, that none in this life is preferred before another, 
much less, that one shall be the cause efficient of another's resur- 
rection. Great speculations on this subject are of no avail, much 
less availeth imagination, which latter, with those who had some 
true relations, was at last regarded as such, or at least blended 
therewith, though they consider themselves free from all mixture, 
for they do it, though eventual acts may approve of speculation, 
and it has been tried, bringing on many a great fall, of which I 
could adduce sufficiently many examples, and indeed of such who 
in their palmy days would not have yielded to any one in England 
on account of their inspiration ; but the same are such as by these 
events are compelled to hide themselves in their chambers, until 
the wrath be completely past, before which they were unwilling, 
at that time, to stoop, thinking themselves, as being perfectly 
cleansed and purified, sufficiently strong, until that wrath be cast 
upon the ground. And although such a fall, however great it is 
(see Psalm 62, 2 Gen.) might not eternally cast them down, 
that is, according to their inner spark of faith; as long as we, 
that is, the simple and quiet, step most securely. He that believeth, 
hasteneth not. He that hath said. He would come, will come as- 

suredly, and without our running before; the wise virgins; will be 

awakened, all at the same time, and they go forth and enter, all 

34 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

at the same time, into the joy of their Lord, none of them runneth 
before or precedeth another, and, therefore, we should not regard 
the so called preference in the kingdom of God, because herein 
there existeth no precedence and order, or emulation, as is the case 
in academies and at courts of the world, but the greatest is as the 
least, and Christ sayeth : " The first shall be last, and the last shall 
be first." But if any one is of the opinion (I still call it an 
opinion) although he that thinketh so, regardeth it as his own 
opinion, that is, he or she, or he and she at the same time, the 
masculine birth for the universal redemption of groaning crea- 
tion, as well as those that have received the firstlings of the Spirit, 
become God-bearing. 

Now then, in the name of the Lord, let them step forth and 
finish this work so long desired, to my bliss and joy, as well as to 
that of all creation, and then we may call it in another opinion. 

But, worthy brother, forgive me, if I continue as an unbelieving 
Thomas to present to your mind the example of our dearest Saviour 
Jesus and his precursor John, not to speak of others, as I only 
represent a biga (two-horse-chariot) of eternal grace, because, at 
present and heretofore, men have always been speaking of Z.^ 
However much these kept themselves hidden before their assump- 
tion of office, however silent they were concerning their future, but 
they kept themselves in all things in a virgin silence (whereof in 
the Old Testament, the virgins always remain at home, and a going 
out in disguise representeth something properly) until that hour 
which was destined for them in the calendar of eternity, and then 
she stepped forth not with pen and ink, but in strength and might, 
which no foe could withstand, there you see how very much such a 
biga of eternal grace, even for our times and longer yet (availeth?), 
but this excessive boasting hereof in the streets of Babylon is some- 
what suspicious to me. The cry: "See here!" "See there!" not 
to speak of the idle personal applications. In a word, the affair 
will come to pass quite differently than one or several men, yea, 
even Jesus Christ himself imagines, and though we have revelation 

2 Z = possibly an astrological character. 

The Journal of Kelpitis. 35 

hereof, this revelation oftentimes cannot comprehend the spirit of 
the instrument, and often falls upon a false application of its per- 
son, and, if this will not do, it must be called a figure; now, inas- 
much as many have practiced carnal lust in faith, or, at least, have 
brought about a spiritual mixture. How often, for pity's sake, 
have these things happened, and still happen even in such through 
whom it was hoped, salvation should burst forth; and we may 
perhaps not be so much mistaken in the application, as were the 
two disciples that journeyed to Emmaus, though we cannot demon- 
strate it to them, for those unto whom we can re-monstrate it, so 
that they may know it themselves even without remonstrations, 
these also stand in just as great danger as the others, in whom it 
appeared spiritually before God, but did not come to a bursting 
forth. As then the mystery of the holy gospel (when children that 
tie a string about a bird's foot and permit it o fly upward, and 
the bird thinking its freedom attained, but the children may pull 
it down to them at will) is fulfilled, wherein the spirit of evil 
permits them to soar on high in knowledges and visions, caring 
little about their freedom of ascension, if only he can make them 
descend at will by means of the rope fastened to their feet and 
incorporated with their earthly dwelling. 

Dearest brother! Unto your opened wound, oil may be perhaps 
more agreeable than salt and pungent wine? which oil you would 
fain choose and expect of me, as, doubtless, you are bruised and 
dejected in mind sufficiently, and, believe me, that I am loth to 
swim in this element, as I would rather enjoy and gently glide 
with my beloved on evening clouds, but I am loth to storm with the 
north wind through the garden of God! But, my faithful heart, 
when I consider the dangerous place where you are and in spirit 
see, how some by bland gifts . . . seek to gouge out your eye and 
to bind your hands, after having shorn you of your locks of liberty, 
I would rather see you with Samson turning the mill-stone of ex-^ 
terior hard work (as we have done and at times still do, rather 
than see you basking in the lap of your beloved spiritual Delilah.) 

I dearly love F. L. and his associates, and their writings have 

36 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

often strengthened me and raised me up, but I wish from my heart, 
we may not see this sad drama more. So I also know, how those 
dear souls Quedlinburg (whom I spiritually embrace and kiss) 
founded upon the corner-stone of our salvation, have been so 
powerfully edified, after having laid aside so many rudiments, and 
I hope, they will also discard the remaining superfluities, and 
hasten to the purpose; therefore, I deem myself too paltry and 
miserable to teach them anything, because I am so fain to see, that, 
being rid of all teachers and martinets, we might be taught, en- 
lightened and inspired and directly united with the head, the only 
high priest of our salvation, which, of course, cannot and will not 
be accomplished without previous dearth, discipline, temptation, 
cross (or whatever we may call it, as previously indicated by me), 
nor without the final lunge of death, although thereafter nothing 
shall take us captive and detain us; hence, we cannot but expect 
the bursting forth of salvation from Jesus Christ, in, from and 
through us all, because we all are but one body, and He, Jesus of 
Nazareth, remaineth the glorified theanthrope, from whom the life 
of the Father welleth and bursteth forth. Behold, dear brother, 
this manifest and through His apostles manifested truth is not 
unknown to you; inasmuch, however, as we see so many and 
various pseudo-saviours in the theatre of these our revolutions, it 
were not strange, if our countenances were somewhat turned away 
from the only true one, and if we looked infatuated upon another 
guest-brother's beauty, yea, angelic and cherub-like clearness, and 
thus forsook our truest and most beautiful bridegroom amongst 
all, and if we became faithless or even adulterous and would thus 
contaminate our virgin garment or even lose it; we recognize, in- 
deed, among all these forms, the proximity of salvation, but so, 
that we may not embrace some folly because of too great ardour 
and heat of desire, as some men and women in their too ardent 
and passionate devotions have done, soaring perhaps too high, and 
then being humiliated, they took heed, as then the danger is truly 
and ineffably great, but not so great, as when we in spirit desert 
our most true and loving Jesus for the sake of others (though 

The Journal of Kelpius. 37 

they were angels), and become mixed with them, as indicated 
before, and you stand before this matter in greater danger on 
account of various circumstances (as we, for the sake of neces- 
sary assistance, sometimes do that which we otherwise do not 
approve of, as we here). 

But as our dear Mr. Schirmer, in Halle, is reported to have said 
to Mr. Schaeffer: ' He would probably, find the devil in Pennsyl- 
vania,' so we are not ignorant of that which he is thinking of, but 
as Mr. Lange (of Hungary, if I err not) said to Falkner & 
Koester : * Ye will also find the dear Lord Jesus in Pennsylvania ' ; 
hence He standeth at our right hand as a hero and screeneth us 
from all fiery onslaughts of Satan, and because His pure wisdom 
hath upon her tongue both the sharp law and the gentle grace, 
Prov. 3. 16, so we also are strengthened and comforted in all things 
and through all things, as we have experienced in ourselves and in 
others, where we, from a distance, impartially observe the deeds 
or the stumblings of every one of your round-table-companies. 

But enough hereof! If now, dear brother, you find some as- 
suredness in your heart, to come to us, do not think, that my dear 
Sohlige by his walking about, is aiming at you or your congress, 
as I am certain, you will be drawn by quite a different principle 
in coming hither, as our dear Schaefer, or others were, who from 
hence ran back again, hoping to teach the world or even the saints. 
For, how you will fare here, we already see in spirit, and I have 
been thinking of this before, hoping the salt would be more agree- 
able to you, than if I had placed before you mere peace. Compare 
the signs of the times with each other (whereof you have made 
mention in your letter) and you will easily, with Amos, be able to 
make a resolution to hide yourself, which you, according to our 
opinion can do no longer, inasmuch as matters have progressed 
too far, and your faith hardly reaches so far, that you would be- 
lieve, it woxild rain manna into your tent (though I cannot find 
any thing in your letter to justify your giving up your present 
engagement entirely). 

We cordially received Schaefer and gave him the choice among 

38 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

7 or 5 different places, among our acquaintances and friends, 
where he might have enjoyed his bread in quietude; if he had only 
tutored the child of the house, he might have, after so many 
wanderings and ups and downs, been able to come to rest and 
permit God to prepare his soul and fix his purpose. But his heart 
always drew him to his nation: Swedes, Finlanders and Indians, 
which 3 resemble each other very much, in order to do good among 
them, as he thinks; and he went amongst them, and we parted 
from each other in love, as we left the door open for him, to come 
back to us, if he should not find among his nation that which he 
thought he would. But when at last, his soul shall be brought 
to rest, the Lord alone knows, for he himself is without method 
to attain this end, on the contrary, he is desirous of converting 
and strengthening others, though he himself confesses he has no 
grounds, and thus many impede their own progress in various 
manners, and cannot enter into their rest because of mere un- 
belief, standing so firmly upon themselves. Now, who could think, 
that our human way could be a wrong way, in so much as to be 
unwilling to turn therefrom. God be merciful unto such and unto 
us all! 

Now, whatever you do, do it in faith, that the Lord will pro- 
vide, and doubt thou not. Neither be thou afeard of the lions, 
nor of the bears, nor of serpents, nor any animal, but step upon 
their necks in the power of God, believing that they can harm no 
one but him that is afeard of them. Now, if you find the means 
to come hither, do not wait for Fox, but come in thy strength 
and faith which the Lord will give you, lest Alva, that is, the talk 
of an infidel move you and untoward thoughts seduce you. I seek 
not to persuade you, and for all the world I would not have your 
faith founded on me, nor on anyone but upon God alone. 

Do not make too much of this enterprise, as though you would 
hereby evade Babylon and all temptations, nor yet too little, as 
though this place were not more comfortable for your circum- 
stances, to hide you in your exile, than London is and safety lies 
in a middle course, that is, in child-like simplicity. If this comes 
to pass, we shall, no doubt, receive more ample information con- 

The Journal of Kelphis. 39 

cerning many things, than we have received hitherto, especially 
concerning Catharina B. v. B., whereof we knew not a word, and 
how greatly we mourn this, is ineffable, so much so, that our heart 
would break ; I would rather have imagined, the sun would be illu- 
mined by the moon, than that this would-be (as Maxan called 
him after his death, in consequence of which, he was imprisoned 
for a whole year and robbed of the presence of God, because he 
intrusted this one with several secrets, and as he related to Hatten- 
bach, as is known) and black magician could darken and blacken 
this luminous sun ( i. e. Catharina) . And he may prefer cutting a 
figure, inasmuch as his second marriage, or whoredom, is suffi- 
cient proof and shows what he was hankering after, namely, lust 
of the flesh, which he could not satisfy in this pious soul, and what 
Seelig writes hereof, will, no doubt, become true. But she may be 
a figure before the judgment of God, how they began at the house 
of God, and how God in her, being the purest and best soul I have 
ever known, how they did begin to lay low in the dust all that 
which is sublime in the eyes of men. And it may possibly be, that 
she, on account of her rare gifts and special virtues (as then Jesus 
Christ, himself but a child, did distinguish her, though in outward 
splendor and knowledge of many things she had advanced consider- 
ably, whereof no one should boast, but rather fear). She was idol- 
ized by many and may have delighted therein, wherefore the Lord 
did abash her and caused her to be clothed in sack-cloth or goat 
skin, that she might forget her excessive wanderings, and hide her- 
self from the knowledge of men. Then many a great saint will in 
secret rejoice, thinking himself to become great through her fall, 
and to make himself esteemed by judging and condemning her, 
just as he seeth and toucheth her exterior, rough sack in which the 
Lord hideth her, so he manifesteth hereby his internal, thorny and 
black nature which erstwhile had remained hidden under a radiant 
sheep skin. Who knows how shortly others may be abashed, who 
think not only to be standing alone, but also to become foundation- 
pillars to support the entire superstructure, yea to be such pillars 

O blessed lowliness! How many fickle spirits flit above thee, 

40 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

whilst Jesus was so lowly and, in all things, like unto His brethren, 
yea, even more lowly than they; and I should like to know, how 
Dr. Schmidberg and others welcomed her, when she returned. 
The poor child, no doubt must have been compelled to run the 
gauntlet and to sing from the Song of Songs: Look not upon me 
because I am black, because the sun hath looked upon me: my 
mother's children were angry with me; they made me the keeper 
of the vineyards; but mine own vineyard have I not kept. It may 
have been a special providence, that I did not receive her letter 
at that time, for all things must arrive at their appointed time. 
Still, I should like to know what therein was. But if it had for its 
author . . . , I can easily imagine what it contained. Write thou 
to her, prithee, with my cordial greetings, and though I should like 
to chat with her for an hour, to bring to her heart several things, 
what the Lord hath done by us both, yet I would not allure her 
forth from her rest and quietude. I doubt not but the Lord will 
bless her in time, in that He hath through her blessed so many; 
and because she, too, is as His sheep in His hand, so neither that 
. . . nor any other man will be able to snatch her from out His 
hand. Amen. 

What we as brethren have written, you may communicate at the 
same time (because the one explaineth the other) without fear and 
reserve. For although I have touched upon several particulars and 
have written rather frankly (but Seelig has remained in general 
topics) I have no doubt but that all honest and upright disciples in 
Christ according to His doctrine, will readily assimilate the salt, 
though it disgusteth those who wantonly would remain effeminate 
weaklings. But do not omit corresponding very frequently with 
us, because herein I perceive the special hand of God, therefore I 
have also procured for you a good address, as you may see from 
what I have enclosed, the which you are to hand to W. S. Send 
us the acts with diligence, in that our friends crave for them and, 
if possible, something of Portage, who is entirely unknown to us. 
We had written about one or two pages ; now if these be addressed 
to H. B. in care of this merchant W. S., they will reach their 
destiny in security. 

The Journal of Kelphis. 


Now, if ever you come to us, all things shall be made good. 
Please to give my kindest regards to Mecken and inform him of 
the fact, that I am not at all afeard of his letter, inasmuch as I 
have become so hardened in this desert, that I can possibly endure 
corporeal punishment, though undeserved. May the Lord alone 
strengthen us through an extraordinary power (for such is ours in 
these days) that we may reward the word of His patience, until 
that He come. Yes, come. Lord Jesus. Amen. Hallelujah. 

Yours, J. K. 

Symbol of the Mystical Ephrata Community on the Cocalico, 
Lancaster County, Penna, 



Copy of the Letter which Johann Seelig to the Same 
WITH This Did Send. 

Dearly beloved Brother in the Lord: — 

,OUR letter has partly comforted, partly grieved, and 
yet again encouraged us, in that the Lord in one and 
the same spirit (unto as many of us as stand in one 
spirit of the pure knowledge of His wondrous judg- 
ments) hath given us to perceive, whither such ap- 
parent calamities at this time are aimed and directed, 
the which is lost sight of by magicians, but is brought home unto 
them assuredly in divine power from the simple ground of faith- 
magic, to the consternation of the whole world, for whereby that 
adept in the black art though he could soar aloft and crush his op- 
ponent, even thereby he may be brought down, whilst his opponent 
riseth in divine power. Behold, how the principal person is already 
acting in the final destruction of the world through his false — morn- 
ing star or harbinger ! Through this their confusion, there is insti- 
tuted from the simple and childlike ground of faith, the true love- 
feast or supper of the marriage of the Lamb (thus Apocalypse 19 
should have been rendered in our German Bible). As no mention is 
made of this supper by the church and the reformation Baals up to 
-this time, as a witness against them, that they do npt belong to the 
blessed that are called thereunto, until after holding such a love- 
feast, the King himself in person appeareth, and the afore-men- 
tioned person who will then also appear, and bear in his flesh the 


The Journal of Kelpius. 43 

centre of the magic ground of the dark world, bringing it to a 

My dear little brother, we, indeed, had many things to speak of 
and to write of, but how is it possible, that the above imperishable 
soul-spark wedded unto the light of its sophic bride, should be able 
to manifest itself properly through these awkward, unpropor- 
tioned organs of our present miserable body, wherein the same lies 
captive besides? Nothing is pleasing to the sight of this spark, 
not even the most beautiful colors of our aurora, because such are 
not the fixed body, though veritable signs of the same. Therefore, 
we especially labor and cry with our beloved to God our Father, 
Psalm 63 : O God, thou art my God ; early will I seek thee : my 
soul thirsteth for thee, my flesh longeth for thee in a dry and 
thirsty land, where no water is. And how often doth my flesh 
yearn thus! The flesh of Christ in us longeth to come out of the 
pathless desert and dry flesh of this body to the upper hut of the 
body that is not fashioned with hands from the waters above. Yet 
the beloved desireth, in no other manner than through divine 
birth-right, to sit in the spoiled lap of his bride, passing from 
such dryness and pathless desert and saying, that I may be seen 
thus in thy holy doing. 

Therefore, let us be unanimous, nor let us tear off the swaddling- 
clothes of the discipline of our Father, as naughty children do, that 
afterward were bound with ropes; but nowadays many children 
are neither swathed nor bound, therefore filling the vessel too 
heavily, and, in turn, it is meted out unto them heavily. O blessed 
bond wherewith Paul was bound, when he writeth of himself: " I 
in spirit bound ! " considering that some are unwilling to see the 
mystery of this binding in spirit, or unwilling to resign themselves 
thereunto. Hence there ariseth: I. a restless running about from 
place to place without use and fruit of edification, either of one's 
self or of another; 2. a life according to one's own advice, caring 
little for that which one's neighbor giveth in love and faith, but 
... Of God and His Spirit; 3. all manner of fickle imagination 
concerning one's self and one's deeds to which we were called in 

44 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

the world or in the church, as one imagines ; 4. spiritual luxuriance 
or lewdness according to the word of the prophet, Old Testament, 
consisting in a constant desire of devotion in our own circle and 
also in behalf of others, breaking thereby the faith-link of Peter, 
namely: abstinence 2 Feb. 45, 6, especially at this time, when the 
impure, astral Venus desires to run constantly parallel to and act 
equally with our true philadelphian spirits of love, which are the 
essential body of heavenly wisdom, against which there is no better 
remedy than the drawing rope and that which the Lord, through 
the raisin, so truly testifieth at the last: Put on a rough coat and 
hide thyself, so that no one may know thee. That which is written 
in confirmation of this, Ep. 34 and Psalm XLXX, is of impor- 
tance; 5. there ariseth a foolish nuisance, in that we cannot accom- 
modate ourselves to the varying forms of Saul, where the Lord put 
on his cloth in distinct manners, but we think an impure spirit is 
making his abode therein. Now, as that one doth not fly into a 
passion, but understandeth well, why the Lord hath, for a time, 
hidden them, not only from men, but also from one another. (Yea, 
also from one's self in kind, as David prayeth therefor, 2. Sam. 22. 
LXX. Lord redeem or save from myself: (these words, I have 
added) ; 6. such unbridled liberty easily leadeth into a barren . . . 
temptation; as such an one often thinketh himself in the midst of 
hell, and almost immediately thereafter he declares he is in heaven, 
by which declaration, the ignorant are dazzled, as being beyond the 
true bounds of the process of Christ (in which something may 
come to pass which has a similarity, just as the astral Venus with 
the sophistic, which is but an astral motion, whereby the sensate 
elementary part, which lies below, just as the earth beneath the 
stars, is thus affected). In this connection men have indulged in 
another folly arising in them from ignorance, in that they con- 
stantly look at the accidents that may strike their exterior part, and 
are blind to the danger therein, especially at this time, soul . . . 
may. For then they consider themselves well secured and to have' 
done almost everything, if they are exact in matters of external 
clothing, eating and drinking, in business and in their form of 
outward devotion, and hence they enjoy quietude, but they are 

The Journal of Kelpiiis. '45 

unwilling to comprehend aught of the firmament of the astral 
principle, where the need is greatest, nor will they suffer being 
told that such disturbs their devotion; 7. there finally ariseth the 
great evil, namely, the aforementioned abode of Satan, wherein we 
are confirmed in error and work disgrace upon disgrace. May our 
faithful God and Father of our Saviour grant that none of His be 
brought so low, but may He deliver them from the tribulation in 
the 7^*^, that they may not be united with the evil one. 

My dear little brother, pardon my prolixity, I am not seeking to 
instruct thee, perhaps thou'rt more learned and stronger than I 
am. I am only trying to roll a part of my burden upon thy 
shoulders, hoping thou wilt help me bear it. What shall I say, 
when I think of the merciful, dear heart of God our Father who 
hath, for these many years in this desert, preserved several of us, 
especially me and dear brother Kelpius, from the arrows of destruc- 
tion. What shall I say, when I think of the powerful eagle wings, 
upon which His providence hath lifted us poor worms, and borne 
us and conducted us wonderfully. My heart is melting away in 
tears and will not suffer me to pursue the thought, nor can this be, 
for it still lieth in mysterious wisdom, as a child in the womb 
hidden, and, in season due, its joy shall be made manifest. 

My bodily health is rather poor; do not be too obscure in your 
letter, but open your heart unto us, as well as you may and just 
as the Lord permitteth, especially in regard to C. Reecken and 

The religions here are in constant opposition, nor is this at all 
surprising, for they are the Jordan, of whose roaring waves and 
cataracts David in his exile in the desert. Psalm 42, singeth, which 
will endure until that Joshua and Elijah come and divide the river 
which is rightly called Jordan, that is, a division and ejection of 
judgment into victory, whence another Jordan will arise, that is, 
the doctrine of the judgment, which will flow in loveliness, for in 
the significance, as a figure of the cross of wisdom, is contained in 
the near Jordan. Greetings, etc., etc. 

P. S. to my letter. On perusing this letter, I was amazed at 
myself, regarding with wonderment: i. the long, 2. the prickly, 3. 

46 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

the rough sack in which I was clad while writing, having resolved 
to write something totally diiferent, but my spirit was broken, 
and my heart directed elsewhither, and my mind was led in bonds, 
whither it would not ; I was fain to retain- the letter, were I not as 
yet bound. I, therefore, resign the matter wholly to the merciful 
Father of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who knoweth why this had 
to be thus, though I, for the most part, know not, yet recognize this 
fact, especially as to persons, thinking of so many personalities. 

My heart would fain melt away in tears of blood, both when 
I consider the tribulations to come, and also for gratitude and joy, 
when I think of the salvation, how His fatherly hand hath already 
saved us from so many snares of the hunter, and poured His bless- 
ings upon us. This again awakens the slumbering hopes, so that I 
commend all things unto the Lord with a believing heart, for He 
will do all things well. 


Seal of the Sisterhood of Saron on the Cocalico (from Ancient 
Ephrata Document). 




To Mr. Steven Momfort in Long Island^ in America. 

1699, II. December. 
Dear Friend and Brother: 

N fellow-fighting in that Free and Royal Spirit which 
strives for the Prize of the first Resurrection when in 
this Midnight the Cry of the Bridegroom's coming 
is sounded forth among the Virgin waiters for the 
Preparation of the Temple Body, wherein the King of 
Glory and Father of the coming Eternity is to enter. 
Your great desire for to be a little further informed of the Principles 
and Practizes of those People that go under the Name of Pietists, 
what they hold as Doctrin differing from others, what their Disci- 
pline is and what Methods they use in their own Country ; this desire 
I will hope, doth not arise from the Root of that Athenian Curiosity 
to hear some new thing; But rather you being one among thousands 
in Juda, who sees how since that glorious Primitive Church of Christ 
Jesus the Apostacy hath run in a continual current till this very 
day, and though this Stream hath divided itself in many smaller 
Rivulets, under several Names of more reformed Purity, yet you 
are not ignorant how they derive their Emanation from one Spring 
and tend to the same end. Viz. that the Woman in the Wilderness 
might be carried away by the Flood. Therefore you, as a Remnant 
of her seed, long for to see your Mother and groan for the Manifes- 
tation of her children. No wonder then, if your continual Gazing 
upon this Supercaelestial Orb and Sphier from whence with her 

1 Should be Rhode Island. 


48 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Children, causeth you to observe every new Phoenomena, Meteors, 
Stars and various Colours of the Skei, if peradventure you may be- 
hold at last an Harbinger as an Evidence of that great Jubelee or 
Restitation of all things and glorious Sabbathismos or the continual 
days of Rest without intervening or succeeding Nights, whereof 
God hath spoken by the mouth of all his Prophets since the world 
began (Acts 3, 21) arid whereof both the Testaments prophesie in 
every Title and Iota. If now this late Revolution in Europe (not 
to speak of that in other parts) which in the Roman Church goes 
under the Name of Quietism, in the Protestant Church under the 
Name of Pietism, Chiliasm, and Philadelphianism, If I say this 
together or one in Special purtends any thing to this effect. I do 
not question, but it will be your as well as my desire, who would 
re Joyce not only to give you full satisfaction as to this, but to see 
with you, yet in our days, that happy day, which when its new 
Earth swallows all that forementioned Floud and where its glorious 
Sun causeth all other Stars and Phoenomena to disappear, no Night 
succeeds it, but that the Night is swallowed up in ye Day, Dark- 
ness into Light, Death into Life, Judgment into Victory, Justice 
into Mercy, all imperfect Metals into Gold, and Gold itself is 
refined seven times, and all Churches and Virgins comprised into 
the one Dove (Cant. 6, 9), then all the Sons of God will shout 
for joy as they did in the Beginning, when God was all in all, as he 
will be all in all, when again the End hath found its Beginning. 
Amen ! Halleluiah ! 

Dear and worthy friend, though unknown to the Flesh but 
knovv'n in that better, yea in the best Line and highest descent in 
the Life of our Immanuel, whose day we rejoyce to hear of and 
more to see, as well within us as without us, in its Depth, Hight, 
Breadth and Length, through the whole palsed and groaning Cre- 
ation, as well as in our Mother Jerusalem above and Beneath! 
How can I write the particulars of the Quietists, Chiliasts or 
Philadelphians, whose Fame is spread in all the 4 quarters of the 
now Christianity. They first sprang in Italy, in Rome itself (and 
are increased now through the whole Roman Church in many 

The Journal of Kelpius. 49 

Millions, though they was and are still depressed) 15 or 20 years 
before the Pietists or Chiliasts in Germany and Switzerland (where 
the first Reformation) in the year '89 and '90, with a swift increase 
through the whole Nation, so that their Branches also did break 
forth into other Nations, as in England under the name of Phila- 
delphians. This Penn is too dull to express the extraordinary 
Power the Pietists and Chiliasts among the Protestants in Germany 
(and especially in Saxony) and Switzerland was endued with in 
their Infancy. This only I say, as one who hath read the Histories, 
that since the days of the Apostels, such Miraculous Powers and 
operations have not been manifested as in a matter of 3^ years 
among these. And like as the Miracles wrought by God through 
the Hand of Moyses was for the main part in the outward Crea- 
tion or Macrocosm, the Miracles of Jesus the Messia on the Bodys 
of Man or Microcosm, so these in our days was wrought (much 
like unto them in the days of the Apostles) on the Soul and more 
interiour parts by Ectases, Revelations, Inspirations, Illuminations, 
Inspeakings, Prophesies, Apparitions, Changings of Minds, Trans- 
figurations, Translations of their Bodys, wonderful Fastings for 1 1, 
14, 27, 37 days, Paradysical Representations by Voices, Melodies, 
and Sensations to the very perceptibility of the Spectators who was 
about such persons, whose condition as to the inward condition of 
their Souls, as well as their outward Transactions, yea their very 
thoughts they could tell during the time of their Exstacies, though 
they had never seen nor heard of the Persons before. 

These and many other Gifts continued as is said, for a matter of 
three years and a half among all sorts of Persons, Noble, and 
ignoble. Learned and unlearned, Male and female, young and old, 
very conspiciously and generally Protestants chiefly, and some Pa- 
pists, and with some though more refined such and like Gifts last 
till this very day. 

Thus partly I have declared how they was baptized with such 
energical drops out of that supercaelestial Pillar of Cloud by Gifts 
and miraculous Manifestations of the Powers from on high. 

Now will I tell in short in what a craggy, uneven yea dark 

50 The Pennsyhania-German Society. 

wilderness they have been led since, when hitherto they have been 
baptized with the fiery Pillar of many inward and outward Tribu- 
lations, Sorrows, Temptations, Refinings, Purifications (but never- 
theless this Fiere casts such a Light befor'm that securs'm from 
the persuing Might and dark influence of Egypt and guides'm in 
that beloved land and City.) This must be through many Tribu- 
lations as the Apostels have witnessed, so they felt it and feel it still 
very smartly. For when these things begun to ferment every where, 
I. The Students in the Universities forsake their former way of 
Learning and applied themselves wholly to Piety and Godliness, 
(from whence their name was derived) leaving and some burning 
their heathenish Logiks, Rhetoriks, Metaphysiks. 2. The Laymen 
or Auditors begun to find fault with the Sermons and Lifes of 
their Ministers, seeing there was nothing of Ye Power of the Holy 
Ghost, nor of the Life of Christ and his Apostels. 3. The children 
under the Information and Tuition of Pietists, (for the Students 
applied themselves chiefly to the Education of Children, as they 
do till this day with great, yea extraordinary success) begun to 
reproof their Parents if they was working an Lye or unrighteous- 
ness ! yea some in their tender years came to witness strange things 
of the Invisible worlds. Till at last Demetrius with his Craftsmen 
begun to see and hear that not only in Lipzig, (from which Uni- 
versity this Motion first begun to spread abroad) but almost 
throughout all Germany and adjacent Contrys these Pietists did 
persuade and turn away much People, saying that the Form of 
Godliness without the Power thereof is meer Idolatry and super- 
stition; Yea they saw, how that not only this their craft was en- 
dangered by these and set at nought, but also the Temple or Uni- 
versities of the great Goddess Dianoria or Reason and Ratiocina- 
tion (which is quite different from that Dionoria or Understand- 
ing or Unction whereof John witnesses ijoh. 5. 19. c. 2, 27.) 
should be despised and her Magnificence (thus the Rectors in the 
Universities are titled) should be destroyed, if in the place of 
Dianoria, the Sophia from on high should be adored and instead of 

The Journal of Kelpius. 51 

Temples or Universities, the Hearts of men should be consecrated. 
(Excuse me, dear Heart, that I thus run into an Ailegoricall 
Application, for the very same Comedy was played as you read in 
the Acts of the Apostels, only the time and persons changed.) 
Thus the Battel and Insurrection begun, which lasteth till this day. 
The Anti-Pietists (so their Adversaries are pleased to call them- 
selves) betook themselves to the secular Arm. But several Princes 
being partly inclined to the Principles of the Pietists, partly con- 
vinced of a superior Agent in these things, took them in their Pro- 
tection, especially the Elector of Brandeb. In the Principality of 
Brunswick and Lunebourg, the course was otherwise, for in the 
very beginning 3 Bishops or Supirts was removed their offices; the 
same happened in other Countries and Cities, as Erford, Lipzik, 
Quedlinbourg, Halberstad, Hambourg, Hassen Cassel, where and 
in Switzerland lately several Ministers are removed and some ban- 
ished the Country. Thus they increased under the Cross. As for 
any peculiar Badge or Mark, they have none being above these 
trifling affections) or any peculiar Church Ceremony or Discipline 
which should cause a Shism or branch a new sect. For they are not 
ignorant of the wilderness wherein the Church is and hath been 
hitherto, and in what a glory she will appear when she comes up 
from the Wilderness leaning on her beloved. Cant. 8. 5. They 
see well enough how all the Reformations and Revolutions in this 
last Age as well as theirs are but Apparitions of the fair colours of 
the Aurora or Break of the day, mixed with many uncleanness 
Vv^herein there is no stay (as my beloved Brother and faithful Fel- 
low-Pilgrim in this Wilderness state Seelig hath written) for they 
are not the substance or sun itself though the various beautiful 
Apparitions of the Skie, should entice one allmost enamoured in 
them, and to mistake the Harbinger for the King! whom to meet 
they prepare themselves earnestly, some of 'm laying aside all other 
-engagements whatever, trimming their Lamps and adorning them- 
selves with white silky Holiness and golden Righteousness, that they 
may be found worthy, when the Bridegroom comes, to receive him 

^2 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

with confidence and joy and to bring him in the House of their 
Mother, where He will drink with'm that new spicy wine of the 
Kingdom in all everlasting Progresses. That we also may prepare 
ourselves with our whole endeavours continually I wish heartily, 
who do recommend you in the Clifts of the FoundatlonRock of 
our Salvation, Jesus Christ. Remaining your fellow Traveller In 
this blessed work and best engagement. 

Johannes Kelpius. 
Dated in the Wilderness. 

Ancient Astrological Chart, as Cast by the Early Mystics on ThB "" 









To Rev. Magister Eric Biorck, 
Pastor at Christianna. 


May Jehovah remember thee, that thou mayest see the good 
things of his elect ; may he remember thee for the sake of his favor 
toward his people, that thou mayest rejoice in the joy of his nation. 
May he visit in his salvation, that thou mayest glory in his in- 
heritance. Amen ! 

Psalm cvi. 45. 

Very reverend Sir and Friend, Master and friend in Jesus our 
Saviour, ever to be regarded by me with fraternal love ; 

In your beloved letter, written on January 10, and received on 

January 17, through Mr. Jonas B , I got a twofold proof of 

your fraternal love, the epistle and the money. Would to God I 
were truly such as you have outlined, or such as you have judged 
me with my most beloved Rudman. By day and by night I attend, 
indeed, that I may cleanse myself from every blemish both of body 
and of soul, and I perform my rites in the fear of the Lord, and 
thatJ may obtain, by grace alone that which is my pattern by 
nature, through sincere imitation of him ; to wit, the adoption as a 
son, the redemption of our body (Rom. viii, 23. Compare i John 
iii, 1-2; Phil, iii, 11-15; Gal. iv, 5; Apoc. xix, 8; 2 Tim. iv, 8) 
How many parasangs as yet I may be distant from the scope (aim) 
prefixed for myself, becometh known to the fellow-soldiers (Asso- 

4 53 

54 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

i*M^ >*^^ fl^/^N.** «r//^ <>^ p^ h*> t^ri^ ^ U.1 *ii^ 4-iu9 

Facsimile of Kelpius' Letter to Rev. Ericus Biork. 


The Journal of Kelphis. 55 

dates) of those cricified and buried with (In) Christ (Gal. ii, 20,) 
and whom God, rich in mercy through Christ, kept secret (in si- 
lence) and awakened and placed in the heavenly (places) in Christ 
Jesus (Eph. i, 20). Better than myself no one knows (my short- 
comings) save alone the searcher of hearts and minds; for that 
which our beloved Rudman bore witness concerning me, is to be 
attributed rather to himself (Rudman) and to divine charity, where- 
withal his heart was affected ; these things also, Paul being a wit- 
ness (i Cor., xiii). He endureth all, believeth all, hopeth all, 
sustaineth all. 

naught of evil does he think, nor is he irritable, but he rejoiceth in 
verity. Sometimes I am fully convinced, that you, in no wise 
spoke for form's sake, as it were, neither your sayings nor your 
doings, but that with a sincere heart and with pure affections, as 
becomes a true professor of true Christianity, you did unfold the 
sentiments of your mind; thus in turn I would you believed that 
your mirror reflected the image of him looking therein, i. e. of 
yourself; only, had you not enough to do to be conformed to 
Christ, our head, in point of a sincere heart and energies (virtues), 
never could you notice or admire such in others, though you had 
tried it. For who knoweth the business of a man, if not the spirit 
of the man, the which is in him: but none among us knoweth the 
affairs of God, if not God's spirit. And ye who act in the spirit 
of God, the same He acknowledges, and He would have wished 
that, also, in others endowed with the same spirit. But the gross, 
earthly man, & another divine (theologian) does not under- 
stand (grasp) the things which are of the divine spirit, since in- 
deed these be to him folly, and thus (therefore) he cannot know 
(understand) those things, inasmuch as (because) they be worthy 
of being examined (judged) spiritually, i Cor. 2, 14. That is, 
amiable man, from whom I have received singular (extraordinary) 
joy, that you, namely, although being (notwithstanding your be- 
ing) busy in the hall according to the manner of your duty 
(office), & according to the custom of the Levites, encompassed 
round about with animals (sportive?), & scrutinizing, instructing 

56 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

and sacrificing these into the sanctuary & yet looking into their 
interior or souls, should finally worship in spirit & in truth. Of 
which threefold cult of a minister, & of the order of the same, 
grades, duties, &c. I should have many & knotty points, which 
I might discourse of, if I should not think it superfluous to begin 
an enumeration thereof in the presence of a learned man : nor with 
another end do I allude (treat of) to these, than that our relation- 
ship in Christ, & our life in the body, of which you have made 
mention, may take (assume) a greater increase. Nor is it that, 
holding fast, he may throw into (infuse) this sacred institution a 
more righteous (way), & sin surrounding us (Hebr. 12, i) & the 
concerns of life (2. Tim. 2, 9), as far as to these things it be ex- 
pedient, against that we do set watch (a lying out on guard). 
Verily I confess with you that the necessaries of this life (as they 
are called) or the things pertaining to life heap up great barriers 
for (against) the Christian soldier, with the witness Wisdom 
(chap. IX. 15.) the mortal body weigheth down the spirit & 
crusheth the understanding, an earthly vessel full of many cares. 
Nor would you incongruously term these ' strange pursuits,' to 
wit, we are living on strange (foreign) soil, exiles from Para- 
dise, travellers in this world, nowhere secure, exclaiming with 
David : Woe is me ! who am wandering so long, dwelling with the 
Cedariani (that I sojourn in Meshech, That I dwell among the 
tents of Kedar!) i. e. in darkened tents (tabernacles). Psalm 120, 5. 
The Cedariani, indeed, were the children of Ishmael, not going to 
inherit with Isaac, the son of Sarah. From which cause we desire 
this dark tabernacle of our earthly house to be dissolved, in order 
that we may obtain an edifice, bright & glorious. But indeed, 
although Abraham may have interceded for Ishmael even and may 
have been heard (granted) by the Lord; we also groan, burthened, 
unwilling to be freed (unclothed), but clothed over & above, that 

1 N. B. The Septuagint in their times read ^^")|P = mizzorim = strange, 
with 1 (resh = the letter R). In the exemplar (copy) of to-day it is 
read with T {daleth = the letter D), Psalm 19, 14. ^^'P =z mizzedim = 
from the proud. 

The Journal of Kelpnis. 57 

our mortality may be absorbed in life. 2. Cor. V. i. Cor. 15, 51. 
& N. B. Job. XI. 26. But of this hidden mystery of the resur- 
rection of the Just, (I will say) not more just now. 

But you grieve, most loving little heart, that time must be 
expended upon the necessaries of this life? I grieve with you! 
But does it seem to you that you have hope in a strait, (does it 
seem to you) from this cause that we can perfectly serve God in 
this life? There is also to me (hope) ! I despair not so much of 
the victory (how very distant although as yet I may be (there- 
from)) induced (as I am) chiefly by the following arguments 
amongst others: I. Paul saith: i. Cor. 10, 31. Whether ye eat, or 
drink, do all to the glory of God, & Col. 3, 17. Whatsoever ye 
do both in words & deed, that shall ye do in the name of Jesus, 
the Lord, & giving thanks to God the Father through him, com- 
pare Eph. 5, 20. I. Thess. 5, 18. But of the things pertaining 
to life they do eat for the most part to eat, to drink, words & 
works. All these things can & ought be made subservient to the 
glory of God, as saith Paul, therefore the worship of God doth not 
present (supply) any hindrance, but an incentive & aid. What- 
soever, he saith, pertaineth to the worship of God unto (by) man, 
ought to be perfect. Scarcely was it lawful in the old Testament, 
when seeking many things for sacrifices, to make use of an emblem, 
because it was not in every way perfect. Hence therefore as if the 
field of victory (were) in these very particulars appertaining to life, 
it seems to me to be made manifest (open), if in truth (no 
wonder) I shall have taken heed thereunto, that (I shall be) free 
from the cares of the gentiles. Matt. 6. end, content with my food 
& raiment (covering), see Tim. 6, 8, from the desire of becoming 
rich & from avarice manifestly averse, ibid., v. 9, 10. (entirely) 
not entangled (hampered) by the affairs (concerns, duties) of life, 
2. Tim. 2, 4. I say, if not held captive by all these very things, 
but I shall have been found master of the same, i. Cor. 6, 12. Be-. 
cause he is a slave of these things, he cannot serve God, more- 
over we cannot serve two masters, but in how far he shall have 
returned into servitude, & be master over them, in so far does he 

58 The Pennsyhania-German Society. 

render to God a perfect service in these things (hence appear the 
degrees of perfection) nevertheless dominion cons'steth not in pos- 
sessing nothing (for vi^hat sort of king is he without subjects) but 
in the mind from the things possessed, not in a possessed (mind) 
[whereof the sure signs are thus a) in acquired things he 
rejoiceth not, /?) concerning the lost, he is not worried, y) 
concerning those which are to come & not yet acquired, he is 
affected by no disquiet] That however the saints of old have 
exhibited a perfect cult unto God, & that it is possible now-a-days 
to exhibit such to God, that is, by not serving secular (worldly) 
affairs, but by ruling over them, & that an holocaust perfect out of 
these things can be offered, I am convinced. 

IL The Virtue & Efficacy of a lively Faith: Christ saith unto 
us, Mark 9, 23. All things are possible to him that believeth. 
Luke confirms 17, 6. why not therefore also rule over fleeting 
things? Why not also in these very matters exhibit to God a 
perfect service? Is the prince of this world more valiant & more 
powerful (potent) than Christ our Saviour & Preserver? (Has) 
not Paul of long-standing experience in these matters . . . having 
been taught thoroughly, he exclaims: I can perform all things 
through him that strengtheneth me (or, strengtheneth me by an 
inner, vital, substantial, radical force). By (with) Christ, Phil, 
4, 13. as though he would say: even as without Christ I can do 
nothing, John 15. 5. so with Christ I can do every thing, who 
with express words promised: whatsoever ye shall have asked in 
prayer, believing, ye shall obtain, Matt. 21. 22. & that without any 
exception. It is not, therefore, that I shew my inability any 
further (more amply), since as hath been shewn, through Christ 
we may get all power, according to that well-known passage of 
John I, 12. Whosoever, NB. whosoever indeed have received 
him, to those he hath given that power, to become sons of God: 
therefore, if (we be) sons & coheirs of all things that Christ hath, 
even as he himself testified! : He that believeth on me, the same 
hath all things with me, or he shall even do greater things than 
these, John 14, 12. (the works that I do, shall he do also; & 

The Journal of Kelpiiis. 59 

greater works than these shall he do.) And he who shall have 
conquered (towards the possibility of conquering!) to him shall I 
give to sit with me on my throne, as I also have sat down a victor 
with my Father on his throne, Apoc, 3, end. And John I. Epistle, 
5, 4. Whatsoever is begotten of God overcometh the world, & 
this is the victory, that hath overcome the world, even our Faith. 

Finally, in the third place, what causes, certainly, my Pyrrho- 
nism (skepticism) & doubting to blush, is that well-known love of 
perfection, with which we are bound up. Paul, describing the 
energy thereof, (to use an hyperbolic, though not incongruous 
epithet), the omnipotence in the golden to Rom. chapter 8th, 
finally, after a long enumeration of the parts, he exclaims: But 
in all these things we surpass more than we conquer, & the more 
so are we conquerors, through the Christ loving you. Who, there- 
fore, in these least things, would despair of victory, as if the neces- 
saries of life, or secular concerns, could present such obstacles unto 
the Christ-loving soul, that she could not please her bridegroom of 
the perfect? Whether or no, he who loved his own in his son 
before the foundation of the world, & gave to us his only begotten 
son, in the likeness of ourselves, unto a most ignominious death, 
will he, I say, donate his spirit sparingly, & imperfectly, or a spirit, 
inperfect, mixed, inadequate? Away with such a thought (not 
to say: a suspicion) of a loving soul concerning so loveworthy a 
God! John the Baptist eloquently testifieth the contrary of Christ: 
To whom, he saith, God gave spirit without measure, i. e. im- 
measurable & entire. He himself, of a verity, is the vine, we the 
branches thereof, John XV., now with what sap & spirit the vine 
is nourished (poured through), with the same, also, the branches 
(are nourished). Hence, also, concerning us Paul, Tit. 3, 6. he 
hath poured out his holy spirit upon us, richly, opulently, plenti- 
fully, exceeding all desire, compare Rom. 5, 5. Also, in how much 
we are impelled by the spirit of Christ, in so much do we bid fare- 
well to the spirit of this world : or, in how far we love Christ, in 
so far do we pursue with hatred worldly & perishable things; 
until the perfected love (i John 4, 18) thrusteth out every fear 

6o The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

of all enemies, & the accompHsher crowneth the conquerors with a 
perfect crown. 

But to revert to myself: 

How happeneth it, my Kelpius! that unto thy God, so love- 
worthy, so rich, so liberal & in endless ways transcending thine 
every desire, in these least things, in temporal affairs, in perishable 
things, in foreign things, in external & transitory affairs (not to 
say eternal & spiritual), I say, in these thou hast not hitherto 
shewn the acme of perfection & scarcely shewest it even now? 
Knowest thou not that all the saints of old have shewn it, & art 
thou not very sure that it is possible even now, while the very 
same spirit survives, your leader, your guide, your helper & accom- 
plisher? What sort of an account, I pray, wilt thou give, here- 
after, to the judge, judging without regard to persons & that ac- 
cording to the works of every one ? To these & similar objections, 
I answer: Man, indeed, is born, not immediately on the first day, 
nor immediately in the first year, & in seven years he reaches man- 
hood, yet, nevertheless, man is perfect, he is furnished (endowed) 
with all things constituting the human body: granted, even if all 
the members be very delicate, & the whole body subject to various 
accidents, vicissitudes, sorrows & diseases: & the mind (subject to) 
instructions, chastisements, & exercises & an infinite number of 
other things: yet he despaireth not in all these, that he will once 
reach the age of manhood. But if these things are certain in the 
mortal generation, how much more (are they so) in the regenera- 
tion, when (where) various degrees of perfection are given. Justi- 
fication, namely, is accomplished through faith by one act indeed 
(just as the natural generation & filiation, so to speak) : but 
renovation & sanctification are to be pursued throughout our entire 
lives, until we may reach the goal, i. e. the age of manhood in 
Christ, according to that dictum : And he that is righteous, let him 
do righteousness still : & he that is holy, let him be made holy still. 
Apoc. 22. & that well-known saying: He that doth not advance in 
that which is good, retrogradeth : he that doth not progress on the 
holy road, regresseth. Namely, even as we advance from child- 

The Journal of Kelpius. 6l 

hood to the age of manhood, gradually, so, little by little, (we 
advance) from vices to virtue, &, in turn, from virtues unto 
virtues, 2. Pet. i, 5. 6. 7. & Apoc. chapters I. & II. where the 
seven degrees; we go to the age of manhood, or the age of per- 
fection, not in the life to come, but in this life: likewise, also, in 
this life, sins must be overcome; from the very bottom & the root 
they must be extirpated. And just as, when the sun ascendeth 
above the horizon, the darkness is gradually dispelled, the mists 
pass away by degrees; until, standing at mid-day, he triumph com- 
pletely over darkness. Thus Christ, the sun & light of the spir- 
itual & new world, not only beginneth to dispel in us the reign of 
darkness & foul whirlpool night, but through faith in ourselves, he 
conducteth the war unto perfect victory. But faith according to 
that passage in Paul, i. Cor. 13, end, is of this life, not of the life 
to come: indeed our errors on account of the necessaries of life (of 
which I began speaking) belong to this life, not the future one, 
therefore, we must here triumph over these. Nor did the Israel- 
ites sin in that, because they did not cast out the Canaam'tes in one 
day, or in one year, but in that, they believed not the command of 
God nor his promise of victory, as if He were commanding impos- 
sibilities: who afterwards were willing, but in vain, because 
God was unwilling so I also, although I have not yet attained to 
thorough manhood (Ecclesiastes, 7. 29) & I have not yet cast out 
of my land worldly desires, & consequently not all Canaanites, yet 
am I daily bent upon it, that I make greater advances in the camp 
of the enemies, until that I may be crowned with true quietude of 
soul as a perfect conqueror of all enemies, having vanquished & 
utterly extirpated them. But if truly, according to the likeness of 
that worthless, cowardly & timid servant (compare Apoc. 21, 8., 
Matt. 25), I should despair in this life of the gain (advantage) & 
the victory, & should accuse the Lord, as if He were commanding 
impossibilities, of severity, I should not obey His command of per- 
fection. Matt. 5, 48. of perfect sanctification. Lev. 11, 44. chapter 
19, 2. I. Pet. I, 15, 16. I should distrust Him, He offering aid 
& victory, I should delay the war against the enemies, assailing me 

62 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

m this present world, to the future world, where no enemfes are 
given; I say by doing this, I should sin, & deservedly would I be 
hurled at last into the lowermost darkness, inasmuch as I, who 
would not go out during the six days (as those would not, who 
were idle), i. e. in this life, I would seek the manna on the Sabbath 
day, i. e., in the life to come. 

I have rested with the foolish virgins, the bridegroom having 
entered, & the gates having been closed, I was knocking, i. e. in 
this life, as if it were night, I neglected to walk in the perfect light 
of Christ, & the like of her I went about the will-o'-the-wisp, but 
I did not go forth to meet him a-shouting with the prudent ones, 
while it was midnight as yet, & the gate open, & the bridegroom 
was coming on. In this manner I should be like a child, who, if 
he were to reach manhood hereafter, should foreknow how great 
hardships were yet to be overcome with great pain, to obtain 
wherewith he should be fed & clothed, how great annoyances were 
to be undergone at the schools, & chastisements to be sustained for 
cultivating the mind towards the acquisition of prudence in con- 
cerns of business: I say, considering (weighing) thoroughly these 
& other grievances of that sort, he should despair of obtaining 
virile age in this life, & place his trust in death, as if dead, he 
should at least come ofF a perfect man. But dropping this fool, I 
have chosen to imitate the infant Redeemer, who grew both in age 
& wisdom before God & men: this one remained hidden from the 
twelfth year of his age for eighteen years. He remained hidden, 
I say, but he lived well, i. e. he grew from day to day, until he 
went forth, in his thirtieth year, A Man. And, after that, he most 
perfectly fulfilled the will of his Father for the salvation of the 
entire world, he went out of this life, &, sitting at the right hand 
of his omnipotent Father, he sendeth his Holy Spirit unto all 
believing on him. He also aideth mine infirmities; for me & in 
m.e he pleadeth with unspeakable sighing (Rom. 8, 26) & he ac- 
complished! in me, that I am both willing & at times thoroughly 
do the will of my Father Abba. And so the virtue of the Almighty 
is perfected in mine infirmity. 

The Journal of Kelpius. 63 

I believe, therefore, according to the testimony of the entire 
Scripture with all Saints: That our Father wisheth, wisheth, I say, 
that his children be free from every fault: that God wisheth they 
may luithhold themselves from every sin; mankind were created 
by Him for justice, &" He donated them zvith the spirit of His 
Son. That Christ desireth that those be purified from every sin, 
for the expiation of whom, he himself became a victim, z^ that the 
virgin soul is to be delivered up to him; a virgin, I say, chaste ^ 
devoid of every wrinkle or vice, he entrusted her unto us. That 
the Holy Spirit effecteth that this will of the Father is' of the Son 
be accomplished in us as yet in this life. And, although, thus far 
I may have been subjected to infinite temptations & may have 
borne my cross daily, nor have always advanced with equal steps, 
nay rather have fallen oftentimes, & as to that, into the horrid 
whirlpool & filthy mire (Psalm XL. 3.) & have drawn near the 
gate of death (Psalm IX.), insomuch that with the same David, 
I should have cried out: (Psalm 38.) Jehovah, turn not upon me 
fiercely! Punish me not in thine anger! [This chastisement may 
be of the healing not of the killing one: with the rod of love of a 
father toward his son, Hebr. 12., not of a judge pursuing with 
the sword of judgment]. For thy darts are thrust upon me, thy 
hand presseth me down \_& with Job, chap. 6. The arrows of the 
Almighty are ivithin me, the poison whereof my spirit drinketh up, 
while I am wrestling with the terrors of God.] Thy chastisement 
in my heart, the continued representation of Thy dreadful judg- 
ment, & the long lasting absence of Thy gratuitous consolations, 
bringeth it about, that I begin to perceive nothing if not (only) 
sin within me & without. For nothing is sound in my body [vici- 
ousness dwelleth in me! for I know & daily experience that the 
good dwelleth not in me, i. e. in my flesh or in the human nature ; 
but sin dwelleth in me, against this] so great is Thine anger, that 
Thou didst not spare Thy son, who was a stranger to sin, but 
didst give him over into death, & madest an execration for exe- 
crable me, that I too may become ingrafted in that similitude of 
his death, to the end that the sinful body may be cast oflE, nor that 
I be in bondage of sin any longer, for in my limbs there is nothing 
uninjured on account of my sin. 



To Mary Elizabeth Gerber in Virginia, 


October 8th, 1704. 
Contents: — An answer to her letter, in which she requests an 
expression of my opinion concerning the Quakers. — 

Immanuel! Granted the request. Eph. i, 17-23. In Jesu C, 
our Lord, most esteemed & revered Sister: 

,OUR beloved missive of Aug. 23 rd '4, duly received. 
I rejoice in that you would awake from the death-like 
slumber of sin of the world, & from worldly senti- 
ments, & in that you earnestly covet the inheritance 
of the Saints, & would walk in the light of the Son 
of God. I, likewise, entertain the confident hope, that 
the God of Peace, hath, indeed, begun in your soul the work of the 
new creation (regeneration), & will, through the blood of the ever- 
lasting Covenant, also, perfect the same unto the day of Jesu 
Christ. As regards other matters, &c them also (the Friends?) 
(less scattered in the communities of the present day, & in spirit 
bound, expecting the hope of Sion) (Zion) these let us carry in our 
hearts, for God, & pray for them — your love requesteth of me, all 
manner of experience & cognition, to the end that you may prove, 
what be the best; especially in these latter, dangerous times, in 
which not only the mockers (scoffers), described by the Apostles 
(2. Pet. 3, 3.2. Tim. 3, i) do in all stations of life & in all 
religions so prodigiously increase, but also there have gone forth all 
manner of angels & spirits (i John 4.7.2. Pet. 2, i. Matth. 24. 


The Journal of Kelpiiis. 65 

II. I. Cor. II. 19. I. Tim. 4. I.) & they have instituted con- 
gregations, one arming against the other. Here Temples of the 
Lord ! Here the Catholic Church of Christ ! Here the Orthodox 
Evangelical ! Here the Chosen Reformed ! Here the again-born 
baptized (Anabaptists?) ! Here the Folk (People) of God, walk- 
ing in the Light, etc. Now some of these have their distinct praise, 
gift of beauty, strength, might, power, wisdom, order, light &c., the 
which, indeed, are apparent to an impartial eye, whilst at the same 
time, we perceive, that they have received said ornaments but piece- 
meal, & not in the highest & most irrefragable perfection: the one 
hath received this, the other that, none (not one) of them hath 
received all (ornaments) alone in the highest degree: all in part, 
not one in united harmony. One possesseth something apart from 
the rest & very similar to the image of perfection, which is wanting 
to the other, the latter, in turn, hath something, that is wanting to 
the former, &c. Howbeit every one vaunteth as being the best & 
most comely amongst all these women, & the last (of which you, 
dear Sister, write) claims to be the only dove, dearest unto her 
mother, yea, the chosen one of her mother, yea, verily, the mother 
or the very self of the New Jerusalem. But unto this very day are 
not agreed amongst themselves, as to which of them deserveth the 
chief place: yet why speak of their reaching an agreement? They 
have no such intention: they even contend among themselves, but 
not as did erstwhile the Disciples of Christ, as to who should be 
regarded chief in the Mystery of Grace (devotion), but which of 
them be most accomplished in the mystery of malice, the arch 
heretic, yea, even the Babylonian harlot herself: nor are they con- 
tent with reviling, those that are in power use the sword, those 
lacking the sword make swords of their tongues, & with such blind 
rage, that it moves to pity ; first, that they are unable to recognize 
themselves; second, nor those against whom they are fighting; 
thirdly, least of all are they aware of what they profess (this is 
especially true of the last). 

"Who are they, pray?" You, esteemed Sister, will probably 
ask, & how shall I learn to know them, that I may not err In my 

66 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

judgment, & become a partaker of their contention, & come into 
danger of the judgment, that needs must follow? " Answer: This 
is taught by Paul, Gal. 4. Coloss. 2., by the Apocalypse & by the 
Song of Songs of Sol., as followeth, namely: They all are sisters 
amongst themselves £s° children of Jerusalem, but not of her that is 
freej but of her that is a handmaid & in thraldom with her chil- 
dren. Which becometh clear (see p. 9. 10. Gal. 4), that they all 
serve weak & paltry tenets (statutes). They observe days & 
months & feasts & seasons, each in his particular manner & differ- 
ently, as compared with the others, (hence the origin of the strife, 
schism or sects among them). Yet in this they are all agreed, 
that they serve their own tenets, which they love, & which they 
recognize as good & true; these tenets they exalt, defend, propa- 
gate, & extol before others (proselytize), etc. All of which 
(sects, etc.) (however profligate some of them may be) have a 
semblance of wisdom & truth ; wherefore, also, Paul calleth all 
such tenet-service or living according to law — " Philosophy " or 
love of wisdom. Col. 2. Of these (people) they teach in the 
schools of the present day, of each distinctly, as well as of what 
truth they hold, so far as demonstrable in Holy Writ, but the body 
or the entity herself & the occult wisdom & truth are not therein 
(in these meetings), but in Christ, in whom there lie hidden all 
treasures of wisdom & understanding, yea the entire plenitude of 
the Deity dwelleth corporally in Him. Through Him we are 
rendered entirely participant of the entity of all tenets deduced 
from (mentioned in) Holy Writ. (As Paul adduceth a renowned 
example of circumcision. Col. 2, V. ii), but such tenets as are 
not mentioned in the Scriptures, these appertain (are referable) to 
mankind, commandments & doctrines; Vol. 2. 22. N.B. Matth. 
15. 9. Isaiah (Esa) 29. 13. unto which, indeed, some of these 
church-women do more homage than to those, which are called the 
"shadows of the body" by Paul, Col. 2. 17. Hebr. 8. 5. chap. 
"10. I. Whereby they are clearly recognized, of what mind they 
be, namely, children of Sinai or Hagar, of the bond-woman & not 
of the free understanding, yea of Sinai, even of his great splendor, 

The Journal of Kelpius. 67 

light, spirit, clearness, enlightenment, mutes etc. Especially in the 
New Testament, far more splendidly than in the Old, in which it 
is more spiritual : Thus it is . . . wherefore, up to this time, naught 
else hath appeared in Christendom (primitive Christianity ex- 
cepted) ; for what of Zion hath been there & still abideth, is 
only in the desert, whereof we shall soon speak more amply ; hence 
it hath come to pass, that many a one, inexperienced in the word 
of justice, & that such, whose senses were not practiced in dis- 
criminating, have honored the bond-woman, instead of the woman 
(mistress) herself, &, likewise, regarded the bond-slave for the 
Son. To the end that you, esteemed Sister, may not fall into the 
same error, I shall briefly touch upon what is meant by the Woman, 
the free and only Dove of the rightful Solomon, or the New 
Jerusalem, so that, by comparing the one with the other, you may 
recognize both more readily. Isaiah saith, chap. 65, that in the 
New Jerusalem, which the Lord willed to create on earth (N.B. 
on earth, &, therefore, not in heaven, though she descendeth from 
heaven) the voice of lamentation & of weeping shall be heard no 
more. Likewise saith He in the Apocalypse, chap. 21. 4. death 
shall be no more, nor sorrow, nor wailing (crying), nor pains. 
But whereof doth a repentant heart complain & weep more, than 
of sin? What else is the sting of death, than sin? What filleth 
us with greater grief, than sin committed ? Where is the loudest 
wailing & the greatest pain, if not in the anxiety of being born 
again (regeneration), John 16.21. Hence, the sense hereof is: 
In the New Jerusalem there shall be no more sinners, none that 
stand in need of repentance, none that suffer the pains of regen- 
eration: (as we read in the last verse: Naught that is vile shall 
enter therein, nor that worketh abomination & falsehoods), but 
regenerated ones only, holy, just, new men, who can sin no more, 
I John 3.9. chap. 8, 10. Heb. 9.28., who, therefore, die no more, 
neither bodily nor spiritually, Apoc. 21, 4. i Cor. 15, 26. 54. 
John II. 26. Luke, 20. 36. In brief: The curse and death, 
which are laid in & upon the entire creation (creature), by the 
fall of the first Adam, under which even to this hour all creatures 

68 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

have groaned, Rom. 8, 18-25. shall be completely removed by the 
atonement & efficacy of the everlasting redemption in the blood of 
the second Adam, offered up on the cross, when He shall come a 
second time bodily (I say bodily, because some would have it but 
spiritually, whereas it shall be both; still, however, it is only in 
the mystery of devotion as yet see A. A. i, 10.2. (acts of Apostles) 
Thess, 5, 10. that He appear glorious in & with His Saints & 
wonderful in & with (thus readeth the original text) all the faith- 
ful, which Paul, Rom, 8. calleth the manifestation of the children 
of God. Who are the children of the resurrection, Luke, 20. 36. 
This shall be the year of the great jubilee, when all prisoners will 
be set free, & each one will return to his parental inheritance, the 
which we have lost in our first father Adam, whereof the entire 
Old Testament is filled. Of this the Apostles & first Christians 
had but the firstlings, but not the fullness, not the perfection (Rom. 
8. 23) (Cor. 13, 9-2 Cor. 5. 7.) the which they awaited, as they 
had, indeed, so plentifully received the coming (future) of Christ 
in the spirit, as no congregation or church after Him even to this 
hour. They possessed all manner of spiritual gifts both for their 
inner glorification, as well as for the outer working of miracles. 
Thus, in their community, there was not heard any longer the voice 
of groaning, weeping & lamentation, but that of joy & rejoicing 
(lA. 2, 46. 47. C. 3, 31. Rom. 5, 3-5. Phil. 4, 4. i Pet. 4. 
13). If an unclean one, or a hypocrite or a liar wanted to join 
them, he either was liable to instant death, or he was punished in 
the presence of all, & the hidden things of his heart became 
manifest, so that he had to fall upon his countenance (prone) & 
adore God & confess that God was truly in him. i Cor. 4, 24, 25. 
(though these did not long enjoy their happiness, for the great 
apostasy & Antichrist was up already and doing in their days. 
Thess. 2, 7.) And yet they became not prouder & filled, as 
though they had enough already & wanted no more (as in Laod. 
Apoc. 3) for they had seized (grasped) the utmost dove-like 
simplicity, the which alone seeketh the King's heart, that is not 
satisfied with any gifts, until that she have the Giver himself, (not 

The Journal of Kelphis. 69 

to say (much less) that she loveth the Giver for the sake of the 
gifts) but to exclaim all along: Come, Lord Jesu! yea, the Spirit 
himself & the bride said, Come! And he that beareth witness of 
all this, saith : yea, I come quickly ! amen. Whence all, that are 
participant of the same Spirit cry, by day & by night, at all places, 
whithersoever they have been scattered: " Yes, come Lord Jesu! " 
And, pray, dear Sister, how can the bride be prepared without the 
bridegroom? Or, is the perfection to be wrought in the spirit 
only? But then, what of the resurrection from death & the re- 
demption of this body, for which all members of Christ do, with 
Paul, so anxiously cry (Rom. 8, 15. Phil. 2, 20. 21. i Cor. 15. 
entirely. Col. 3, 4. i John 3, 2. 2. Peter 3. entirely. 2. Cor. 5, 
i-ii.) Did Christ, then, in spirit only ascend into heaven? &, 
hence, is He to be expected in spirit only? Shall the selfsame 
Jesus, whom his disciples did see to ascend bodily, from the Mount 
of Olives come back again, just as his disciples saw Him ascending 
into heaven: why, then, do our Laodiceans of the present day de- 
clare, that He hath (is) come already? "He is come," they say 
(as I myself have heard and read in their writings). "He is 
come. Friends, we bide none other! " Is, then, he, whom the 
Apostles & primitive Christians waited for, an other one, than he, 
whom they had (seen) already ascend, & who sent them from 
heaven after ten days the promise of the Father, namely: The 
Holy Spirit? Or, did they await Him merely for these ten days, 
but not thereafter, because they now had His spirit? Why, then, 
as aforesaid, do the spirit himself & the bride, at the conclusion of 
the Apocalypse, cry : " Come, Lord Jesu ! " 

Yes, dear Friends ! If He be come & ye bide none other, why, 
then, do we hear at all your meetings, especially when these are 
most godly, as you say, the voice of sobbing, of weeping, lamenta- 
tion, yea anguish, sorrow, pain & ululation as for one dead? Is 
this the jubilant voice of the bride for her bridegroom? If, how- 
ever, ye do rejoice by virtue of being moved by His Spirit as the 
(since) Spirit of Christ is made manifest among you at times, just 
as amongst all other congregations) O, then, do for once give 

70 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

honor unto God & confess: that you have, indeed, received a 
glimpse of His beauty through His spirit in your hearts, but never 
yet have ye seen the Lord of Glory himself with His royal diadem, 
wherewith His Mother shall crown Him on the day of His 
exaltation! Or, had ye seen Him, your heart would rejoice in 
so much, that your joy would nevermore be taken from you (John 
1 6, 22), since, as you say, you must at every meeting await Him 
anew. Yea, if ye had but His spirit, the other Paraclete, whom 
the Father giveth that He remain supreme (John 14, 16), remain- 
ing and dwelling in you, ye would not begin to rejoice as at a 
marriage feast for the time, but with the woman in the desert & 
her seed, together with the Spirit, ye would cry day and night: 
" Come, Lord Jesu! " & patiently await His coming. But if ye 
be the holy people, God's only people, whence cometh it, that the 
number of the uncircumcised, of the unclean, of the abominable & 
horrid liars, & of all manner of sinners, is far greater among you, 
than the number of the just? Have not your tenets (statutes), 
symbols or sacraments, whereby ye are distinguished from other 
communities, become, at present, the pall of (for) vices, under 
cover of which the worst hypocrites can conceal, yea really do con- 
ceal themselves ? Saith old George Fox in his Journal : As soon as 
any statute, though it be the way of the Apostles, hath become a 
cloak for hypocrites, they are an abomination before God. Now, 
should I consider your society the most beautiful among women, 
that is free from blemish & hereditary evil, Cant. 4. 10., as the 
community of the first-born, begotten in the perfection of justice? 
Alas, ye are not even like unto the community of the Apostles & 
first Christians, who were but a picture & a shadow of the future 
(community) ! How could ye be the (community) of which 
they (Apostles & first Christians) prophesied, & for whose manifes- 
tation they did so earnestly pray? The best among you must work 
out their salvation with fear & trembling. Now, the spirit of fear 
& trembling is the spirit of Hagar & Sinai, Heb. 12, 21. & not the 
spirit of Hagar & Sarah, which is the spirit of the new creation in 
the new Adam, Jesus, the Mediator & Founder of the new cove- 

The Journal of Kelpiiis. 71 

nant, & (the spirit) crieth: Abba, Father, Rom. 8, 15. Gal, 4, 6. 
& worketh in us a perfect love, which expelleth fear, i John 4, 18. 
& (is) a joy on the day of Judgment, as is (felt) by those who 
have penetrated from death unto life, John 5, 24. (Concerning 
this joyous confidence & assurance, read Rom. 8. 31-39., which are 
wrought by the spirit of mercy (grace) & faith, (which proceedeth) 
from Zion & the Glad Tidings, which (spirit) gladdeneth the 
heart & maketh it to feel gay towards God & man, so that we will, 
without compulsion, willingly & gladly, do good unto all men, 
suffer all things, serve every one, &c. But the servile spirit of 
Sinai is for ever complaining, mourning, murmuring, anguishing & 
tormenting the conscience forever more, & yet being unable to help, 
nor yet to impart strength, since always vexing). Now ye have, 
indeed, caught a glimpse (of the true community, but deeming the 
same endangered as yet & fixing a limit (measure), therefore you 
give those coming (to you) opportunely, to understand that ye 
have as yet not reached the tranquilly flowing nether waters of per- 
fection because these are inexhaustible (lost in inexhaustibility) 
— But, esteemed Sister, I seem to have forgotten you, in apostro- 
phizing (addressing) others, while writing to you. But may the 
Lord give unto (you) her the spirit of Wisdom & Scrutiny, so that 
she may, with Mary, choose the best part. But methinks I hear 
her say: This would I fain (have) should I forget thee, Jerusalem, 
may my right be forgotten. My tongue must cleave unto my pal- 
ate, whenever I suffer not, Jerusalem, thy memory to be my great- 
est joy. This is the free one ! This is the fairest amongst women. 
This is the dove, the only one of her mother, the dearest, the chosen 
one of her mother. But, alas, where is she ! Who leadeth me unto 
her! Since my former leaders have been but misleaders, & those 
that offered oil unto me, were the petty merchants in Chaldea. 
Tell me, where He pastureth, whom my soul loveth, where He 
resteth on the noon-day of His greatest power, that I may but 
wander to & fro among the herds of His companions! Where, 
pray, is the fairest of women, so that I may not become enamored 
of one of the women, described above, & be contaminated by her. 

72 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Hath (is) the only dove, indeed, flown heavenward, or, if she 
be as yet on earth, tell me, in which forest she resteth, and in which 
city am I to find her abode? The answer is: She is, indeed, as yet 
on earth, & she was glorious to behold in the days of the Apostles. 
But, after she had given birth to the self-same boy, she fled into the 
desert (wilderness). Apoc. 12., whence she shall soon ascend, 
leaning upon her friend. Cant. 8, 5. (Song of Songs). And 
when she shall see the above-mentioned daughters, then will she 
carefully prove them; the queens themselves & the concubines will 
praise her. Cant. 6, 8. (9). Meseemeth, however, I hear my 
esteemed Sister say: "This answer is too obscure (dark) ; I can not 
understand it. Describe unto me the dove in her true form, & her 
feathers, so that I may know her. Yes, tell me, without concealing 
anything, her place of abode; for I shall not cease from seeking, 
until that I may have found her, though it should be at the price of 
my goods & blood, yea, though it cost me my life." Answer: May 
the Lord strengthen her in her resolution, & vouchsafe that this 
zeal may nevermore become extinguished in her, but ever burn 
brightly! I, in proportion to my slight ability, shall gladly do my 
best. Nevertheless, I must, esteemed Sister, overtly tell her; that 
we can neither find nor know this dove, except we ourselves be- 
come as dovesj &, as soon as we be such, forthwith we fly into the 
wilderness to join the other. This wisdom was not concealed from 
David; hence his yearning. Psalm 55. 7. 8. Would that I had 
wings as doves, that I might fly & perchance remain! Lo, then 
would I fly afar off & lodge in the wilderness. Selah. But whoso 
desire to fly, if he fly not well, will inevitably plunge himself into 
danger, wherein many a soul perisheth. Therefore, the Lord saith 
in Isaiah c. 30, 15. N.B. Jer. 14, lO. 

If ye remained still, ye would be aided; by being quiet & by 
hoping, ye would be strong. Hence they chatter only & mourn 
with Isaiah (38, 15. c 59, 11.) as a dove day & night. And when 
their eyes have become as doves' eyes. Cant, i, 15. c. 4, i. they look 
only at their beloved & hide themselves in His wounds, as in the 
clefts of the rock. Cant. 2, 14. To the end that they may not, like 

The Journal of Kelpius. 73 

the foolish & decoyed (or timid, without heart) dove Ephraim, now 
invoke Egypt, & then run to Assyria, Hosea 7, 11., imploring of 
these spiritual, of those corporal (bodily) food & aid, for there be 
dove-vendors as well as oil-vendors, to whom the silly doves & 
virgins run. Oh, he that rightly knoweth these, in verity doth he 
beware of them. The oil signifieth the Spirit, the dove, the proper 
form of the bride of the lamb, which is love. Thus there are to be 
noted especially, according to the number of the five prudent & five 
foolish virgins, five things, that our five senses be not injured in 
their maidenly, dovelike simplicity in Christ, 2, Cor. 11,3. Matth. 
10. 16., namely: i. The bridegroom, 2. the virgins, 3. the vendors, 
4. the oil, 5. the lamps. But, may God give her the understanding 
of the spirit of Jesu Christ, that she, according to the admonition 
of Paul, 2. Tim. 2, 15. may rightfully divide the word of truth, 
&, after she have flown from the filth of the world by the knowl- 
edge (recognition) of the Crucified for her sin, 2. Pet. 2, 20. nor, 
indeed, purchase the oil or light herself for the bridegroom; nor 
forthwith regard some, though they have oil in their lamps, as 
prudent virgins, because these also have arisen at midnight of the 
great schism (falling off), & will testify to the universal slumber 
in sin of the world. Verily, the vendors sit not only at Rome & in 
the great church, where, alas, God have mercy! there is little oil, 
but, indeed, a great, yea Egyptian & palpable darkness. Even the 
little foxes spoil the vineyard, even men catch & kill the doves. 

Should the virgins that are cleansed (washed off) by the blood 
of the lamb, from the temeration of (with) their first v/cman 
(wife), Apoc. I, 5. chap. 7, 14. & who now follow the lamb, Apoc. 
14, 4., again be defiled with other women, because these may be 
more comely (beautiful) than the first? Let that (thought) be 
far removed ! Those, however, that do it, will, in time, find their 
second purification more difficult than the first. 

Now, my dear Sister might say, " Even so would I, as a chaste, 
pure virgin, follow the lamb, the spotless, the pure, even the lamb 
of God, slain for us, whithersoever it goeth, because I, too, have 
been ransomed by it. But how am I to walk, in this Sardian disper- 

74 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

sion, among so many church women, that I may not soil nor be- 
draggle my garments, Rev. 3, 4. c. 14, 4.?" Answer: If she be 
really in earnest, & if she be conscious of a manly, strong & genuine 
(uncolored) love in her to Jesus & His bride, yea, if such a simple 
love J which hateth duplicity. Mar. 6, 24, 2. Cor. 6, 14, 15. i. 
John 2. 15, Gal. i, 10. Jac. 4, 4. If she find, I say, this love in 
her, or at least an essential longing thereafter, to the end that this 
love may once be perfected in her, & she be rooted in & founded 
upon this love, Eph. 3, 17. Is it thus? Come on! She is rapt of 
the dove-kind ! Nothing can harm her so long as she abide therein, 
if she herself forfeit not this love, either, i. By slighting the same: 
or, 2. By breaking forth too early. In order to prevent this the 
only mean is, to fly into the desert on eagle's wings, where, even 
now, the woman, the bride of the lamb, is most assuredly nourished 
unto her time appointed (which is very nigh at hand) after the 
expiration of which, she will break forth, first, as the dawn, after- 
wards, fair as the moon, then, chosen as the sun, but finally, ter- 
rible as vanguards of hosts, Cant. 6, 9. "O yes! would she say, 
whoso would rightly understand this all, to be preserved from the 
dragon! " 

But, dear Soul ! pray do not entertain melancholy thoughts con- 
cerning these subjects, nor imagine strange things, for in virginal 
lovej all things are contained. If she in childlike simplicity weigh 
and consider all that I have already said, I do not doubt, but that 
God will vouchsafe prosperity (thrivingness). But, if she under- 
stand all In its first sense, then, God be praised, & may He grant 
the will & the accomplishment. But, if not? Then, let her be 
patient, & make no ado, for the time might come, when it would 
be serviceable unto her. I must now hasten towards the conclu- 
sion, yet it will not, as I hope, be disagreeable, if I talk a little more 
about the wilderness. This is twofold: i. Corporal & 2. Spiri- 
tual. In the corporal sense, there are again two divisions (yet this 
sense is unfathomable). Herein it signifieth those who fled into 
the wilderness before the great apostasy (falling o£E), soon after the 
times of the Apostles (whereof the life of the primitive fathers 

The Journal of Kelpius. '75 

(forefathers) is worthy of perusal). Whereof in Rev. c.i2ij/k to 6. 
verse 2. Here, the corporeal wilderness of the entire Christianity, 
that hath fallen off (apostatized), is meant, which is called the 
great city of Babylon Sc Egypt, in which the woman, that is, all the 
true members of Christ & children of the higher (upper) Jeru- 
salem are hidden, amongst all religions & stations in life, as well as 
excluded, Apoc. 12. at the end (for desert signifieth as much as 
"hidden" or not manifest). Therefore, we ought not to despise 
any religion, because Christ still hath in all His true members; nor 
must we regard any religion too high, as hath been said above suf- 
ficiently. The spiritual sense, however, though it, too, is inex- 
haustible, may be subdivided into two heads: i. In regard to the 
whole community or body of Christ, which we shall, for the present, 
not discuss, 2. With regard to every member of this body in par- 
ticular. Just as now the entire body of Christ is in the desert or 
hidden, so also is every member or soul in particular. No reason- 
ing, though it put on all spectacles, can recognize the latter, yet may 
be angered at them, & will take counsel to extirpate these hidden 
ones of the Lord, Psalm 83, 4. Coloss. 3,3. But the Lord hideth 
himself secretly in his tent (pavilion). But as regards the actual 
state of a soul in the wilderness, I cannot at present describe. If 
She, dear soul! become rightly participant of the dove-kind, she 
will, as aforesaid, also obtain eagle's wings to fly thereinto. Then 
will she experience, what it be, to chatter (coo) as a lonely turtle- 
dove, day and night for the longed for loved one, how, meanwhile, 
the loved one feed her with the hidden manna, Apoc. 2, 7. How 
He will let her know the secret & hidden wisdom. Psalm 5, 8. 
Psalm 28, 14 . . . which God ordained (prescribed) before the 
world . . . splendor. How He will donate unto her His great, 
secret goods (treasures), which are better than life. Psalm 31, 20. 
How He will teach her to know the hidden God & Saviour, who 
leadeth His saints so wonderfully, Isaiah 45, 15. & the Father who 
seeth in secret Matth. 6, 6. She will experience, how this friend 
of her soul sweeten the bitter waters of tribulations and sufferings 
in march through the wood of life & mild yoke of His cross, Exod. 
15. Matth. II. 

76 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

How the hard rock in Horeb becomes (is transformed into) a 
fresh fountain of the water of life by knocking with faith, Exod. 
17, I. Cor. 10, 4. How during the day, from out the cloud that 
guideth her, so many droplets of grace (mercy) of heavenly dew, 
will fall upon her as a baptism of grace. This will be unto her a 
day of joy & shouting, when the Holy Ghost shall stir in her heart 
& move the waters, so that the fount shall be poured forth from 
out her eyes in tears of pure joy. Oh, blessed baptism of water! 
Who would not daily, yea, hourly, be baptized thus! But there 
followeth also a night upon this day, wherein the fiery column, as 
God in the east, will preserve her, which is the baptism in fire of 
the Son, until that, at last, the old birth, bred in Egypt, and 
longing for the Egyptian pots of lust, shall completely die out 
together with Moses. Then will the true Jonah-Jesus lead the 
new birthj that was born in the desert, & is now grown to the 
age of manhood, then will he lead this birth to the taking of the 
new Canaan, yea, lead her thereinto. Oh, who would not long for 
this desert (wilderness) ! which is so joyful, & standeth so glad- 
some & bloometh as the lilies! Yes, it bloometh and standeth re- 
joicing, for the splendor of Lebanon is given unto her (the wilder- 
ness). The ornament (excellency) of Carmel & Saron (Sharon), 
Isaiah, 35, i. Even the most bitter myrrhs here contain the most 
hidden sweetness. Even the heaviest burthen is light, & the hardest 
yoke is mild (gentle). The deepest sadness hath hidden in itself, 
the inmost joy; darkness is as light. Psalm 139, 12. Here, dying 
is to become alive ; poverty is the greatest wealth ; hunger & thirst 
are as the most longed for food & most refreshing drink; to be 
nothing and to become nothing, is to inherit all things; to have 
nothing is to possess all things ; to be weak, is the greatest strength ; 
unrest is the securest peace ; no trouble, no work tires, for the more 
one works, the stronger one becomes, & yet the feeblest weakness 
hath hidden in itself the greatest strength. From out such desert 
there shall arise (be built) the fairest city, namely, the New Jeru- 
salem. Now, then. Esteemed Sister, are you willing to come into 
the wilderness, & are ye pleased to flee thereinto ? Then it is neces- 

The Journal of Kelpius. yj 

sary to understand these things spiritually & not corporally, because 
all things gross be herein. Be their names what they will, there are 
no wildernesses in the primitive (first) spiritual understanding, 
but inhabited cities, full of temples & altars. If she be willing to 
follow the lamb, whithersoever it goeth, then let her not follow the 
women, because one is only contaminated with these. Wouldst 
thou convert thyself, then convert thyself unto me, saith the Lord, 
Jer. 4, I. If she have the spirit of the Lord as her teacher & master, 
she must, indeed, be very desirous (studious) if she be not content 
with Him. But if she hear Him in a friend of the bridegroom. 
He will always direct her to the lamb, as John, & bid neither him- 
self, nor any one else to follow. But he that followeth after the 
lamb, must not run before it, lest the wolf catch him. To follow 
Him is the surest way; to remain with Him is the best security; 
& on His pasture there is found the best food. And this she may 
do, if she, according to His own admonition, Matth. 6, 6. remain 
at home, bodily & spiritually, go into her chamber, lock the door, 
& pray to her Father in secret, & her Father, who seeth in secret, 
will reward her openly. Amen. 

With cordial greetings, I am ever ready to serve you in Christ, 
& I shall be happy to hear that you are prospering. The Lord, our 
King, grant her His benison from Zion, to the end that she may 
see Jerusalem, her salvation, throughout her life. 

J. Kelpius. 

P.S. Many more things could I write, but, how is it possible 
to describe the inexpressible with pen & ink! The Lord, however, 
unite our hearts by His spirit, that we, in united harmony, may 
grow together in one faith & knowledge of the Son of God, & ever 
become a more perfect man, who is to be in the measure of the 
perfect age of Christ (see Eph. 4, 14, 15, 16). Thus we shall, 
though absent in body, in the selfsame spirit be present one to 
another & offer up one & the same petition, prayer, intercession & 
thanksgiving through the hand of the Mediator J. C. H. 

78 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Buntchy sends his best regards. Both he & H. Matthey rejoice 
exceedingly because of her conversion to (growth in) Christ. 
These men came to us about a year ago, & have, in this short time, 
Increased powerfully In the renunciation of the cares of this world 
& the allurements thereof. May the Lord strengthen & confirm 
these dear souls furthermore. They live amongst us, less scattered, 
& with us, they long, that, indeed, our Arch-Shepherd would bring 
together the scattered children of God through the power (by 
virtue) of His suffering (passion). (John ii, 52). Jerusalem, 
Indeed, Is being built In this sorrowful time, whilst we hold the 
stones wrought with the one hand, & hold the weapon In the other, 
Nehem. 4, 17. And the stones, each one for Itself are prepared 
outside of Jerusalem. Those that are perfected await the perfec- 
tion of the rest, in whom the corner-stone himself, the first-born, 
our Immanuel, doth wait, Heb. 10, 13. 

. Whence the long-suffering of the great Architect, our God, yea, 
of our Father In Christ becomes apparent, who causeth our breth- 
ren, afore perfected toward salvation — to wait, that they might not 
be perfected without us, Heb. 11, 40. When, however, the last 
stone shall have been perfected, then will the edifice suddenly appear 
without stroke of hammer, without tumult & shouting, appear in 
Its divine splendor, beauty & magnificence. Therefore, beloved 
soul, let us patiently (meekly) suffer chastening, to the end that we 
obtain His sanctlfication (whereof read Heb. 12.) without which 
no one shall see God. In my epistle I have answered her request 
to a sufficiency, but hath It been to her edification? Should be 
pleased to hear hereof. But, if she find therein ought that may 
cause her some doubt, scruple, or the like, or be it that aught may 
be too obscure or unintelligible, yea, if she would know aught more, 
I am, as a fellow-servant, ready to serve her according to the ability 
which God granteth. For It also pleaseth God to work even by 
means (& Indeed, oftentimes by very weak ones, of which I am 
probably one of the most inconsiderable). Just as He hath done 
by your soul through one dear friend Chawiley (?) though he is 
joined unto a certain congregation, nevertheless he hath somewhat 
of the universal charity (love), whereof for the present (I will 

The Journal of Kelpiiis. 


speak no more) — thus he hath been instrumental, largely, to the 
first awakening of her soul. But now, may the faithful Arch- 
Shepherd & Bishop (Overseer) of our salvation give her His 
spirit Himself towards a union (a growth or growing to) & com- 
plete perfection. Amen. 

I remain, Esteemed Sister, 

Your faithful brother, J. K. 

Book Plate of Benjamin Furley, the Rotterdam Merchant. 



To Dr. Fabricius, Prof. Theol. at Helmstadt: 

July 23rd, 1705. 
OUR Magnificence: — The joy your letter afforded me 
I am unable, at present, to describe. I did behold in 
it, as in a mirror, the sincerity and uprightness of my 
good old master. Dr. Fabricius. What dear Mr. 
Ingelstaetter, evrettore dei Falkein, reported, is true, 
so far as appertaineth to the principal point, namely, 
that I have not become a Quaker. Such an idea hath never come 
into my mind, albeit I love them from my inmost soul, even as I do 
all other sects that approach and call themselves Christ's, the Bap- 
tists even not excluded, and, vi^ith Peter, I have found out, in deed 
and truth, that God regardeth not the person, but in all sorts of 
work and religion. He that feareth Him, and doeth what is right, 
is agreeable to Him. I could report of magnalities (if space per- 
mitted) which this great God hath wrought even amongst the 
Indians, whereof there is some printed notice in the Memoirs of 
the Phil. Soc. in London, and how they are brought to grief now 
and then by blind-mouthed Christians. Yet one instance I will 
report, as abashed Sir W. Penn, when he was here last, Anno 1701 
(if I remember rightly) when he wanted to preach to them of 
faith in the God of Heaven and Earth, at their Kintika (thus they 
call their festivity). After having listened tp him with great pa- 
tience ; they answered : " You bid us believe in the Creator and Pre- 
server of Heaven and Earth, though you do not believe in Him 
yourself, nor trust in Him. For you have now made your own the 






The Journal of Kelpius. 8i 

land we held in common amongst ourselves and our friends. You 
now take heed, night and day, how you may keep it, so that no one 
may take it from you. Indeed, you are anxious even beyond your 
span of life, and divide it among your children. This manor for 
this child, that manor for that child. But we have faith in God the 
Creator and Preserver of Heaven and Earth. He preserveth the 
sun, He hath preserved our fathers so many moons (for they count 
not by years). He preserveth us, and we believe and are sure that 
He will also preserve our children after us, and provide for them, 
and because we believe this, we bequeath them not a foot of land." 
Whenever we shall be made worthy to see the many and varied 
dwellings in our Father's house (for who would be so simple, to say 
these dwellings were all of one sort), it is my belief we shall then 
see that the same Architect cared little about our common formula 
and systematic architecture. And, I trow, many disciples of Moses 
and Christ, when in want or dying, might be glad if they shall be 
received in any of the huts, described above, by him, whom they 
perhaps accused of heresy in this life. I hope that God, who 
maketh happy both man and beast, and hath mercy on all his 
children, will, at last, make all men, as died in Adam, alive in the 
other. But life and death are further distinguished from change, 
so that those that have been made to live in Christ, must be de- 
livered from the second death. I know that some cranks, spiriti 
Divines, trouble and crucify themselves concerning this Lexion 
theologiae (as they call it), but especially the Reprobratites, be- 
cause these (Restitution of all things) cancel and crucify their dog- 
mas so very frequently. Meseems, however, their little faith hath 
its origin in the misunderstanding of the word Eternity, which 
neither in Greek nor in Hebrew denoteth a time but an end, but 
rather the contrary as they have both singular and plural numbers, 
and Paul even speaketh of the birth of Eternities. But just as the 
luminaries of the firmament are the dimensions of our time, so it 
seemeth that the Eternities have, also, their dimensions, which, how- 
ever, those (sensual Man's having not the spirit) cannot well see, 
wherefore allowance must be made, if they, perchance, judge hereof 

82 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

as the blind do of colors. But if the Lord from out his infinite 
plentitude should give them the spiritual mind, they will, no doubt, 
judge otherwise. How wroth I formerly would wax toward those 
who would not accept the sayings of Schertzer or Calov as Oracles. 
And I trust in the infinite mercy of God (and your Magnificence 
also had great patience with me and to me, indeed, publicly, whereof 
I have since often been ashamed, but admired your Magnificence's 
humility and prudence), why should I then look with evil eye upon 
my blind neighbor, because God hath, perchance, showed me before- 
hand the abundance of His Mercy, by opening mine eyes before 
theirs? Not to speak of, that I see but little fragments of the 
fragmentary work and the men of the creation as trees! But, es- 
pecially, because I hope to become one in God through Christ both 
with those who do not yet see as I do, and with those that see much 
better and farther than I. 

Although I proffer this common love in the brotherly love, yet 
the brotherly love, the Philadelphiae, remains with me on a firm 
foundation ; whence I was wronged, if I have been called a Quaker 
on account of the former (common love), or even furthermore, a 
Papist, as has been done by the Quakers in this country, as I was 
unwilling to enter the married state, however advantageous the 
connection, wherefore I was either a Jesuit or an Indian Deitist, 
although, by the grace of God, it is easy for me to be judged from 
a human standpoint. Nevertheless I have mercy on such untimely 
judges and condemners who are oblivious of the express prohibition 
of Christ and Paul, though professing to be his disciples; There- 
fore I can harmonize as little with the canon of the Anglical 
Church (Confession), as with the anathema of the Council of 
Trent, though having no part in the errors mentioned. To the 
honor of the Anglical Church, I must confess, that they practice 
the Doctrine of universal grace much better than the Lutherans. 
Their 39 Theses, or Articles (I had almost said 40 less one) are 
so mild and general, that they can be accepted by any one, who is 
not too narrow-minded and of too little faith. If anyone amongst 
them have but a private view, as, for instance, concerning the 

The Journal of Kelpius. 


universal restitution, the Millennium, the Metemptosis, etc., he is, 
on that account, not excommunicated forthwith, especially, if he 
make them but serviceable to the practice of piety, not for the insti- 
tuting of Sects, although they deem the Quaker Sect the last, and 
that the Lord would now soon come to His Temple, forasmuch as 
the opinion concerning the Millennium is quite correct both 
amongst them and the Presbyterians, or Calvinists, both in Old 
and New England, as well as here, and even amongst the Quakers 
themselves a few years ago. It is consequently wrong to place all 
these into one category. The majority of them are just as worldly 
in their opinions, as any of the great divisions may be, and if all 
their members should be subjected to a particular examination on 
some points of Religion — the result would be, as amongst others 
— so many heads, so many opinions, as I have found out in mine 
own experience. (Here the letter ends abruptly). 

Vignette from Title Page of the " Paradisches Wunderspiel," 
Ephrata, 1 76 1. 



Y health Is still precarious, though considerably 
Improved, God be praised. All of us are often- 
times exposed to severe temptations, yet our faith- 
ful Helper is ever near and often granteth us a 
splendid victory and bringeth it to pass, that we 
rule in the midst of our enemies. Much could 
be said on this subject: consider only, how Moses ruled over Pha- 
raoh In Egypt, before gaining a complete victory, enabling him to 
sing his song of triumph at the Red Sea: consider, how David, who 
first was great In Babel, just as Moses In Egypt, ruled In the midst 
of Babel over Bel and Betraies, before he under David and Cyu 
(Cyrus?) assisted in the building of the temple: consider, how Christ 
ruled In the midst of death, before he rose. Think of Paul, a captive 
In Rome, David In the desert, etc. Thus also the new man ruleth 
In us, while yet he Is surrounded by the old Adam, the sins, and death. 
At the sea of glass, he will sing the song of triumph of Moses and 
of the Lamb. Therefore we rejoice and are of good cheer, because 
we know, that the complete victory will finally be of God and the 
Lamb, and, therefore, ours. The new Adam within us, must, 
according to the prototype of the old one, sleep and be still, until 
his bride be fully built up and complete of his flesh and bone. O, 
how great will his joy and ours be, if . . .he now shall awake 
and recognize and name us as his own. Yea, when he shall have 
left his father and his mother, and shall cleave to us, because he is 
waiting therefor; why should we not wait a little for the consum- 
mation, because we shall be rewarded so richly therefor? How 
many have awakened love too soon, hindering thereby their growth 


The Journal of Kelpius. 


unto the fulness of their stature; how many have, with their 
strong spirit, striven too impetuously to attain something of the 
spiritual gifts of their inheritance, which they afterward squan- 
dered, and became poorer than they were at the beginning. Ex- 
amples, such as these, we have in our days too, yea, even among our 
house-mates, who serve to teach us to endure in blessed waiting 
and resting in the will of God, until the destined end, meted out 
by His providence, arrive. O, how this watching and waiting is 
sweetened, in the mean time, for the humble, childlike souls that 
yearn for the holy will of their Father only, in so much that they 
would, indeed, wait forever, if their beloved Father would thus 
have it. And in this wise, they constantly become more humble 
and diminutive in their own estimation, in so much, that they 
finally deem themselves wholly unworthy of the revelation of their 
Friend and Bridegroom, whom they love so tenderly and for whom 
they yearn so eagerly; for the more they contemplate themselves, 
the more do they hate and despise their own self; but if they rise 
above themselves, they become entirely oblivious of their own self. 
And then their salvation is nearest, because they are farthest from 
their own self, &c. 



A. 1706 d. 25, Mayi.^ 
My dearly beloved in our Iminanuel Jesus the Messiah: 
The Son of God our Saviour. 

EING presented lately with a letter of yours, directed 

^M W to our beloved Friend M B ,- I 

0m I Q^ found in the P. S. that the remembrance of mine was 

B^pfl not yet slipt out of your Minde, insomuch that you 
"*** desired to see a few lines from my hand, which De- 

sire is an evident sign to me that the said remem- 
brance is in Love and in the Truth. 

Assure yourself that it is with no less Fervency on my Side, but 
I finde as yet a double wall between us, which indeed seems to stop 
the current of this firey love-dream of which no more at present, 
least we should embolden ourselves to break through before the 
time appointed by Him, who nourisheth the Woman in the Wilder- 
ness (Rev. 12, 14). And since our Discourse broke just as we 
was about this matter. Viz:— THE THREEFOLD WILDER- 
NESS STATE, ril venture upon your Patience a few lines Con- 
cerning this subject, adding the Third State in the Wilderness, 
also having Confidence in your good Acceptance since you have in 
a manner bidden me to write and I finding no better Subject than 
to begin where we left it. 

Of the first we did discourse somewhat, viz: — Of the Barren 

^ Verbatim, et literatem. 

2 The identity of this friend has not been discovered. 


The Journal of Kelpius. 87 

Wilderness, and as we was beginning the second, viz: — Of the 
Fruitfull Wilderness, we was interrupted. 

The first hath a respect upon the Old Birth, like as Ye second 
upon the New. These two run parallel until the First dieth, and 
then the Second is set at Liberty. The first is begotten in Egypt, 
and then arriveth to its manhood, and being led out of Egypt falls 
and Dieth in the Wilderness. The Second is also begotten in Egypt 
but is educated, and arriveth to its manhood in the Wilderness, 
and after the death of the First enters Caanan. The First seeth 
indeed the stretched out Arm of God in Egypt as well as in the 
Wilderness, but murmurs, provokes and tempts God and limiteth 
the Holy one in Israel, alwais turning back with its Heart lusting 
after Egypt. The Second seeth God and its life is preserved, its 
face alwais turned Caananwarts and its Heart with Joshua and 
Caleb (Joshua signifieth Aid, Salvation, Conservation; Caleb, full 
of heart, courageous, undaunted, faithfull) stands faithfull and 
seeth Ye salvation of God, being filled with the fervent and only 
desire of attaining the same. The first is in continual fear of 
Death, and what he feareth cometh upon him (Num. 14, 38; Prov. 
10, 24). The Second is undaunted and liveth (Num. 14, 30, 31) 
and puts his feet upon the necks of his enemies (Jos. 10, 24; Psal. 
94, 13). The Second deriveth its origen from the First, and dying 
to this riseth and liveth in God : The First when He dyeth, liveth 
in the Second (This is a great Mystery and wants an Explana- 
tion else it may be misconstrued, but I hope you are no Stranger 
to it). The Second liveth under Moses as well as the First as 
long as Moses liveth (Gal. 4, i ; Rom. 7), but is hidd inward; by 
chance he is called the inward Man in the Tabernacle, from which 
He never departeth (Exod. 33, 11). But when Moses Dyeth the 
New Man, being arrived now to his Manhood, appears from his 
inward state outwardly to the Terror of his enemies (see of this 
coming forth Cant. 3, 6; and 8, 5) of Whose Land he taketh Pos-„ 
session (Num. 27, 15; Deut. 3, 21-end). I will not draw the 
Parallism further, since a word to the Wise is enough. And since 
we have orally conferred of the First state, viz: — of Ye Barren 

88 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Wilderness, let us insist a little upon the Mystery of the Second. 
In which Fruitfull Wilderness we enjoy the leading Cloud by 
day, out of which so many drops of the heavenly Dew (Psal. 33, 
3) as a Baptism of Grace upon us do fall. This is a Day of Joy 
and triumph, when the Holy Ghost moves and stirreth the waters 
in our Hearts so that this living spring difEuseth it self through the 
Eyes in a sweet and JoyfuU Gush of Tears : O Thou blessed water- 
baptism, who would not desire to be Baptized with thee every day. 
But there followeth a night also upon this Day, w^herein neverthe- 
less the Pillar of Fire is our Guide, refining us as Gold in the 
Furnace, which is the Baptism of Fire of Ye Son, and is indeed 
terrible to the old Birth, but bright and light to the New; for she 
learneth by this to be resigned and say ' Not my will, O Father ! 
but Thine be done.' Thus our Tears are our Meat, yea, our 
Manna, not only by Day but also in the darkest Night (Psal. 42, 
3; 80, 5). The most bitter Myrrh (which ccnditeth the old man 
in his Grave) hath the most sweetest Sweet hid in herself. For 
the Tree of the Cross and the Yoak of the Beloved doth but 
sweeten the bitter water of Affliction and sufferings in Mara ( Exod. 
15; Matt. 11). The darkest sorrow contains in herself the most 
inward Joy and Gladness (2 Cor. 6, 10). Darkness is like the 
Light (Psal. 139, 12). To dye is in this pleasant Wilderness to 
grow lively. Poverty maketh rich. Hunger is the most desirable 
Meat, and Thirst the most refreshing Nectar (Math. 5, 6). To 
be nothing is to be Deified (2 Pet. i, 4). To have nothing is to 
enjoy all (2 Cor. 12, 10). To become weak is the greatest 

Disquietness is the surest Peace (2 Cor. 7, 10). No work no 
Pain doth tire, for the more we work the stronger we grow (Gen. 
32, 24), and yet we do experimentally find that the greatest weak- 
ness hath the greatest strength hid in herself (Cant. 2, 5). Oh 
everblessed Wilderness thou rejoyceth and blossometh as a Rose! 
yea, thou blossometh abundantly and rejoyceth even with Joy and 
Singing. The glory of Libanon is given unto thee, the Excellency 
of Carmel and Sharon! In thee we see the Glory of our Lord, 

The Journal of Kelpiiis. ■ 89 

and the Excellency of our God! In thee our weak Hands are 
Strengthened and our feeble Knees confirmed (Esa. 35, i). Who 
would not desire to be a Denizon in Thee? Who would not de- 
light to trace thy Solitary and lonesom walks? O! ye Inhabi- 
tants of this happy desolation, bless and kiss that gentle hand of that 
Divine Sophia who at the first did so wittily allure you, when she 
intended to bring you into this Wilderness, for to speak to your 
Heart, in order to search and trie the same! Do not forsake her, 
untill she hath given you from hence your Possessions, and the 
hindermost Valley for the opening of your understanding (Hos. 
2, 14, 15, according to the LXX Achor signifying hindermost, 
farthest, comp. Exod. 3, i, Syrach 4, 17-28). 

— This Valley of Achor, or hindermost Cavity, leads me to the 
consideration of a Wilderness yet of a higher (further) degree 
than the Second, which it exceeds by so much as the second does 
the First. We may call it the WILDERNESS OF THE 
ELECT OF GOD, as being traced but by few, and none but 
peculiarly chosen Vessels of Honour and Glory. 

I shall bring but four Instances for this, Two out of Ye Old 
and Two out of the New Test. The first is Moses, that great 
Prophet and mediator between God and the Israel, according to 
the Flesh, who, as the Acts 2, 7, give us to understand, had a Reve- 
lation that He should deliver Israel out of Egypt, whilst He was 
yet in the court of Pharao; which, as he would put in Execution, 
miscarried of the Enterprise through the fault of the People, 
whereupon he fled into the Wilderness, where he remained 40 
years. What He did there is nowhere described, only that towards 
the end of the 40 years He led his Flock to the Backside (or 
rather to the hindermost or furthest) Desert. And there the 
Angel of the L(ord) appeared unto him out of a burning Bush, 
in order to send him in embassage to King Pharao. But so for- 
ward as Moses was at the first to go, when he had got only an 
Intimation or Manifestation or Revelation or Inspiration or Mo- 
tion (or what we may call it) of what He now was to do, without 
any express Commission and Credentials (Viz. Miricales and 

go The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Signs). So backward was he now to go, when he got express orders 
and extraordinary Credentials, so that we may easily find what he 
had done during the 40 years in the Wilderness having the two 
extremes, viz., his Presumption and fervent Zeal at first in which 
he killed the Egyptian, and his great Humility and meekness at last 
when God would send him, which last is Symbolically typified by 
his leading his Sheep by Ye Backside or deepest of the Wilderness. 
Whereas formerly when his firy Quality was not yet thoroughly 
tinctured and Metamorphosed into the Lamlike nature. He led his 
flock, but, as it were, on the Brim and foreside of the Wilderness, 
of which I had more to say, but lest the Letter should exceed its 
bounds, I must hasten to the next Instance, which is Fleyah and 
runs into many things paralell to the first Witness. Read the his- 
tory I Kings 6, 29. He was a very zealous and had slain the Priests 
of Baal, as Moses had the Egyptian. They did seek his life, as the 
Egyptians did Moses his. He made his escape and fled into the 
Wilderness as Moses did. Moses his 40 years was turned to him in 
40 days, He came at last into the Hindermost Wilderness to the 
Mount of God Horeb, the very same where Moses saw the Vision, 
And here God appeared unto him, and gave him a gentle Repri- 
mende as touching his Zeal and Presumtions. Shewing him withal, 
that the great and strong winde and the Earthquake and the Fire 
(wherein Elijah's his Ministry had consisted) did indeed go before 
the L(ord), but that the Lord did not dwell therein, but in the 
still ae thereall creating voice and that there were yet 7000 left 
besides him that had not bowed unto nor kissed Baal ; though they 
were hid and imknown to him, and had not ministered publiquily 
with storming and quaking and burning Jealousy as he had done. 
Thereupon being Condemned to substitute another in his Room 
(viz: to edifie, whereas hitherto he had but destroyed), he was 
soon after taken up into Paradise, by the same element wherein he 
had ministered. This Eleijah leads to Ye first Wilderness in the 
New Testament, the Claus of the old John, the Precursor of the 
Messiah, who after his education was also in the Wilderness, till 
the day of his Shewing unto Israel in the Spirit and Power of 

The Journal of Kelphis. 91 

Eleijah, baptizing with water to Repentance, as the first Eleijah 
had baptized with Fier for Destruction. What he did in the 
Wilderness is not described, but by that what hath been said we 
may safely conclude that he was gratified there for his so great a 
Ministry. That God appeared also unto him there appeareth out 
of what he saith himself (Job. i, 33). He that sent me to Bap- 
tize the same said unto me. I will not draw the Parallelism any 
further, lest I should prove tedious at least. That like as the ac- 
corded of him who succeeded Eleijah, raised the dead man (2 Reg. 
13, 21), so He who succeeded John, by his death became the Head, 
the Spring, the Principle and cause of Life and Resurrection unto 
all that believed in Him, both for Soul and Body. This is the last 
and greatest Witness I am to produce JESUS the Messiah of God, 
our God and Saviour, the centre of all, who also in likeness of the 
first Lawgiver Moses was 40 days (the 40 years of Moses being 
thus abridged) in the Wilderness and tempted there with all 
manner of Temptations (though without sin, wherein He hath the 
only Prerogative above all, Heb. 4, 15; 2, 28). The Scripture in- 
deed maketh mention of his firey trials (i Pet. 4, 12), But no- 
where saith what they was or are. They cannot be described ; it is 
only experience which can teach them best. The three temptations 
that happened at the End of the 40 days (Matt. 4) centre in this: 
// He was the Son of God or Not! which indeed hath more to say 
than is commonly supposed. The very Ground of the Christian 
Religion circling therein and is founded thereupon, as appears from 
Matt. 16, 16; Joh. II, 27; I Job. 4, 15; 5. 5; and is the greatest 
Stumbling block to the Jews (Joh. 19, 7) and to the Turks, the 
Latter believing that Jesus the Son of Mary (as they style him) 
is the word of God incarnate, and that he is anointed to the Holy 
Ghost above all the Prophets and above Mahomed, and that he is 
to be the Judge of the Quick and Dead and of Mahomed himself; 
but that He is the Son of God they cannot believe, for, say they, 
God is a Spirit and cannot beget a man for his Son, &c. And no 
wonder, this being a Mystery surpassing all humane and Angeelicall 
understanding; nor is it to be found out by the same, it depending 

92 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

solely from the Revelation of the Father, like as that of the Father 
depends from the Reception of the Son and M. K., is yet to answer 
the? Why Jesus being God of very God, became to be Man and 
died ? The Prophets and Patriarchs have been tempted indeed w^ith 
great Temptations, but none like this, none of the Nature of this, 
they being not capable of the same, as being the Sons of God 
through Faith in Him, vi^ho being God, was to be made Man 
(Exod. 3, 14, where it should have been interpreted: I Shall be, 
what I shall be, viz: — Man) as we through Faith in Him who was 
God and is made Man. But Jesus having past this firy ordeal. 
He received the Almightiness from his Father, whereof he made no 
bragging Ostentation, as Robbers make of their Pray, but humbled 
himself unto the death even the death of the Cross, styling himself 
at this side of the Grave only the son of Man (or mankind, the 
Greek word denoting both the Sexes) though He was the son of 
God : Wherefore God also by the Resurrection from the Dead 
powerfully declared him to be his Son (Rom. i, 4; Psal. 2. Act.) 
exalting him above all, Lord over all worlds, visible and invisible, 
this and that which is to come (Eph. i, 2; Phil. 2, 6-1 1). 

To these four I will add two more out of the Scripture, pass- 
ing by the rest (Heb. 11, 38). This first is David, that man after 
God's own Heart, who was 10 years in the Wilderness and exer- 
cised in continual Sufferings and Sorrows (as his Psalms bear wit- 
ness) before He was installed in the Kingdom, to which He was 
chosen and annointed so many years before. The second is that great 
Apostle of the Gentiles Paulj who abided seven years in the Deserts 
of Arabia (Gal. I, 17, and as the antient Church Records bear 
witness), before he went out for the Conversion of the Gentiles, I 
could produce a whole Cloud of such chosen Vessels out of the 
antient Records of the first Christians, who beeing prepared in the 
Wild's some for 10, some for 20, some for 40 years, after their 
coming forth converted whole Cities, wrought signs and Miracles, 
was to their Disciples as living Oracles, as the mouth of God 
through whom he fed and guided them, but having exceeded the 
limits of a letter allready, I must stop the Vein which so liberally 

The Journal of Kelpius. 93 

would diffuse it self; I hope what hath been said manifested to the 
full, that God hath prepared alwais his most eminent Instruments 
in the Wilderness. 

When we consider now with a serious introversion of our minds 
those Three states of the Wild's, we shall find That there is no 
entring into the first Wild's without a going out of Spiritual Egj'pt; 
and so consequently no entring into the second without passing the 
first; And so on, no entring into the Third without passing the 
second state. 

We shall find in the next place, that like as there is a long 
Struggling and Groaning under the Egyptian Burdens before the 
delivery from the same ensueth. So there is a long contest between 
the first and second Birth in their Wilderness-Station before the 
Second is set at perfect Liberty and made ready to enter and possess 
Caanan : But how long the Parallelism of the second and third state 
may run together, and where the Borders of each meet together or 
if there be any Borders at all, I'll leave to higher graduated Souls 
than mine is to enquire; by it to speak my mind: me thinks the 
Childhood and Manhood may both well consist with the second 
state, and one may arrive to the manhood in Christ without ever 
entering the Third Station, this being only for some chosen Vessels 
for a peculiar administration which requires also peculiar and extra- 
ordinary Qualifications and Endowments, which they are to acquire 
and make trial of in this Third Station before they appear and 
show themselves to the Israel of God. So that every one that is to 
enter the Third must of necessity be acquainted with the second and 
first. But not every one that hath entered the Second and after 
he is even with the first must also enter the Third Station. 

By the consideration of the Third State we shall find what a 
wighty thing it is to appear and to show oneself to the Israel of 
God, as immediately called chosen and sent by the Lord. Such a 
being made, as Paul saith (i Cor. 4, 9) a Spectacle to the World 
and to Angels and to Men. And what good reason Moses had to 
resist so hard when he was sent, whom God having heard the crey 
and Prayers of his People, did force as it were and thrust or cast 

94 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

forth (see Matt, ii, 38) where It should have been thurst or 

forth instead of sent forth). And what a great presumption it is, 
on the other Hand, to go forth without being thus duly prepared 
beforehand. For though such may have inspirations, Revelations, 
Motions and the like Extraordinary Favours ; yea, may have arrived 
at the very Manhood in Christ (which truly is a high attainment), 
yet they will effect and build nothing, but only (if they do any thing 
at all) destroy, as we see in the instances of Moses and EHas, 
before they had been in that Wild's. Yea, there is no small Danger 
of loosing themselves and to bruise and grind that good seed, which 
was not designed for Meat but for increase, not for to be sent forth 
but to be kept in an honest and Good Heart. (Luc. — ). Such 
are indeed with Child, they are in pain, but (as the common 
Translation saith, Esa. 26, 28, and as the common experience 
wittnesseth to be so) they bring forth as it were but Winde, they 
make no deliverance in the earth, neither do the Inhabitants of the 
World fall ; Whereas if they was duly prepared and had stood the 
firey ordeal it would fare with them, not as with the common, but 
as the Translation the first Christians made use of hath it : Through 
thy Tears Lord we have conceived and have been in Pain of Birth, 
and have brought forth the Spirit of Salvation, which Salvation we 
have wrought on Earth; we shall not fall, but all that dwell on 
Earth shall fall. 

I had many Considerations more to add, as also what the Wilder- 
ness it self is in each of these States, having spoken only of some 
of the Inhabitants thereof and of some of their Qualities and 
Circumstances, and this rather under a veil and, as it were, but 
glancing at the Marrow and Substance. Nor have I counted the 
number of the Wilderness-Time, but touched only the root thereof, 
which is 40 Sun-Days for the New Birth and 42 Moons or Nights 
for the Old (which last I have not so much as mentioned). 
Neither have I measured from the Red-Sea of the Old Birth to the 
Jordan of the New, and a hundred such things more. But my 
beloved and esteemed Friend ! this was to write a Volume and not 
a Letter, And I begin allmost to fear that I have ventured too much 

The Journal of Kelphis. 


upon your Patience this first time, not considering also the wall 
between us. Oh ! that we may behold our Beloved alwais, standing 
behind our Wall, looking forth att the Window, shewing himself 
thorow the Lattesse, saying Rise up my Love, my fair one and 
come away (Cant. 29, 10). To whose Love-embraces leaving you, 
I remain, 

Your sincere, though unworthy Friend, 

RocKSBORROW, 1706, d. 25, Maji. 
For Hesther Pallmer, 

In Long-Island in Flushing. 



OW concerned Magister Kelpius 
was for the spiritual welfare of 
the German settlers in Penn's Colony 
on the Delaware, where every effort 
was made by the Quakers to incorporate 
the Germans in their fold, is shown by 
the compilation by Kelpius of a little 
prayer book of 32 pages, six inches by 
3^/2 inches. The title of this brochure 
was „@ine ^urtjeimb Segreiflige anieitung 
pm ftillen ©e6et." 

No copy of the original edition, so 
far as known, has come down to us. It is said to have been 
printed by Reynler Jansen, about the year 1700, and was 
the first German devotional book to be printed in the west- 

96 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 


^€mnacfj Da^ inntxt @ebdl m fo rt)icb* 
ticjer ^unct ifl/ Dag man Dalfdbe D \^ 

Die (aufere uninterejfirte Ciebe in unferii «der^eti 
anjuric&ten; iint> Da alle C^v3|len(«?dc^e fblcbe 
in Dcv '■^l)at feijn n)oHen) ju Diefem @tanD De^ 
(autern liebc unD ^ollfcmmenbdt fcruffen pnD^ 
unD Dcnenfdbcn fraft Diefe^ ^uf^ Die ni5tS)ige 
(Bna&e Dar_(jereicl^et n)ir&; urn fotcSen ©fdnD ju 
evreicben t fo fc&icf t fic& Diefe^ iiihere (Debet fuiJ 
(jjleyfej) ^^rfonen; ;a fo .^ar auci) fur Die dller^ 
fi'mpelfle mt> alferDumlle £eufe^ a(^ ttjeld^e ictU 
c^erlei? ?iit De^ ©cbet^ fd^i^ pnD; unD e^ ^er* 
nc^ten Unmt\, 
^i brtngf un^ Dajftlbe am allcvbafDi^en jw 


Kelpius's ''Method of Prayer." 97 

ern world, nor is it known whether this was printed with 
German or Latin type.^ 

A second German edition was printed by Frankhn and 
Armbruster in 1756, of which the only known copy is in 
the collection of the writer. There evidently was no gen- 
eral title page; the printers and date are known from the 
advertisements in the local paper. 

A facsimile of the first page with its half title ^^urjer 
SSegriff ober Ieic^te§ 3)littet 511 23eten ober mit ©ott ju reben/' 
is shown upon the opposite page, following is Dr. Chris- 
topher Witt's translation of the text : 

"For as much as internal Prayer is so 

Weighty a Point, that one may call 
it the only means to attain to Per- 
fection in this Life, and to kindle the Pure 
and disinterested Love in our Heart's; and 
as all Christians (luho zvill indeed be such) 
are Called to this State of pure Love and per- 
fection, and will, by the power of this call 
have the necessary Grace offered to them 
to attain such a State. So this inzvard 
prayer suits all persons, even the most 
Simple and ignorant, who are also capable of 
performing this Order or Manner of prayer. 
This brings us soonest to the Union with 
and Conformity to the Will of God! " 

Dr. Christopher Witt- who translated this pamphlet 
into English was an English physician and mystic, who 
joined the mystical community on the Wissahickon in the 

1 C/. " German Pietists in Provincial Pennsylvania," Phila., Kelpius, 
1895, p. 102. 
- Ibid. 

98 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

year 1704, and died in 1765 at the advanced age of ninety 
years, being the last survivor of the Kelpius community on 
the Wissahickon. 

Dr. Witt's English translation was first printed by 
Henry Miller, the German printer of Philadelphia, in the 
year 1761, whose establishment was on Second Street next 
to the corner of Race Street. Dr. Witt gave a copy of 
this edition to Christian Lehman of Germantown, who 
had been one of his students, who made the following 
notes upon the back of the title and last page of his copy, 
viz. :^ 

Reverse of Title: _ ^_ 

Christian Lehman, Favore, Christophori, De Witt, Natus, lOth 
November 1 67 5 in Wiltshire in England. Given xbr: Sth A'^ 
Dom. 1763, Denatus at Germantown, January joth, A*^ Dom 1765 
Buried February ist 1765, Etatis Sue Sg years 2 months 20 days 
Natus loth Novemb'' A. D. 1675. 

On last page: 

The foregoing was originally composed in the German Tongue 
by John Kelpius a German and was Translated into English by 
Christopher Witt who died January joth 1765, aged 89 yrs 2 mo. 
20 days. 

Dr. Witt was buried in the Warner burying ground on 
the hill top back of the Warner house, at the corner of the 
Main and High Street, locally known as "Spook hill."^ 
A part of this ground is now covered by the chancel of St. 
Michael's P. E. Church, under the floor of which rest his 

Two years later, 1763, a second edition of the English 
version of Kelpius's pamphlet was published at German- 

3 For full account of Dr. Witt, cf. ibid., pp. 402-418. 

* Cf. pp. 419-430- 

Kelphis's "Method of Prayer." 


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The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

town by Christopher Sower, as the title states, " The Sec- 
ond edition with addition." No copy with any additional 
matter has thus far been found. The copy printed by Sower 
in the Historical Society is merely a reprint of the Miller 
edition of 1761. 

Facsimiles of title pages of both English editions are 
shown upon the opposite page. The originals are in the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

Magister Johannes Kelpius was small of stature, slight 
in frame, and suffered from an affection or paralysis of the 
left eyelid; he was of a frail constitution, which soon broke 
down under frugal fare and abstemious habits and the ex- 
tremes of our variable climate. 

Kelpius died in the year 1708, at the early age of thirty- 
five. He was buried with the rites of the Mystical com- 
munity at sunset by his brethren. His resting place is not 

Julius F. Sachse. 

September 20, 1916. 



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